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2007

Cascio, Jamais, Paffendorf, Jerry, Smart, John. (No year). Metaverse roadmap: Pathway to the 3D web. http://www.metaverseroadmap.org/overview/.

AALL Spectrum

Cheney, Mari. (2010). Virtual reference: No budget? No time? No problem!. AALL Spectrum, 15(2), 28 - 30.
Garton, Megan. (2007). CUOL: See you online: How to start instant message at your library. AALL Spectrum, 11(5), 8 - 9.

AALL Spectum

Hellyer, Paul. (2009). Reference 2.0: The future of shrinking print reference collections seems destined for the Web. AALL Spectum, 13(5), 24 - 27.

Academe Today

Young, Jeff. (1995). Internet public library opens virtual reference room. Academe Today.

ACM Transactions on Information Systems

Ackerman, Mark S. (1998). Augmenting the organizational memory: A field study of Answer Garden. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 16(3), 203 - 224.

Advanced Technology Libraries

(2006). Virtual reference service for Chinese speakers launched. Advanced Technology Libraries, 35(11), 8.
(2004). Pilot Project to provide virtual reference to visually impaired. Advanced Technology Libraries, 33(4), 5.
(2001). PLCMC offers Virtual Village, "Live Homework Help". Advanced Technology Libraries, 30(10), 5 - 6.

Advances in Librarianship

Kresh, Diane. (2002). High touch or high tech: The collaborative digital reference service as a model for the future of reference. In Lynden, Frederick C., (Ed.), Advances In Librarianship (pp. 149-173). : Academic Press.

Against the Grain

Whit, Alisa. (2003). Virtual reference: An encounter wherein Marian meets vivaciousgurl en route to Jeeves. Against the Grain, 15(4), 34 - 36. Retrieved from http://www.against-the-grain.com/d/TOCIssue?&volsearch=15&issuesearch=4.
Mckinzie, Steve. (2002). Digital reference: A new library paradigm or the Emperor's New Clothes. Against the Grain, 14(4), 34 - 38.

Alabama Librarian

Ceterski, Joe. (2007). Ask an academic librarian: the do's, don't's and doh's of Virtual Reference. Alabama Librarian, 57(2), 13 - 13.
Luce, Dena. (2007). Poster session: Sowing successful service. Alabama Librarian, 57(2), 13.

ALIA Quill 101

Woollett, Melanie. (2001). Towards a virtual reference service. ALIA Quill 101, 4. Retrieved from http://www.alia.org.au/groups/quill/issues/2001.4/woollett.html.

Alki

Wilson, Tony. (2012). The discovery level in software and wetware: Implications for reference and bibliographic service. Alki, 28(2), 10 - 12.
Wilson, Tony. (2012). The discovery level in software and wetware: Implications for reference and bibliographic service. Alki, 28(2), 10 - 12.
Sterling, Rayette. (2005). The Washington State VRef "Lab.". Alki, 21(2), 17 - 17.
Thomas, Margaret. (2005). Scrutinizing virtual reference. Alki, 21(2), 16 - 18.
Campbell, Nicole. (2003). Virtual reference demonstrations in Washington. Alki, 19(2), 15 - 16.
Hirko, Buff. (2002). Moving fast: The statewide virtual reference project. Alki, 18(2), 7.
Johnson, Cameron A., McCarty, Laura. (2001). Distance education and digital reference: The Yellow Brick Road?. Alki, 17(1), 6 - 9.
Huling, Nancy. (2000). R/evolution in reference services: Research on digital reference. Alki, 16(2), 21 - 22.

American Libraries

Kroski, Ellyssa. (2013). 18 great technology initiativs for your library. American Libraries, 44(1/2), 50 - 54.
Braxton, Susan. (2005). Eeewww! My patron tried to pick me up. American Libraries, 36(4), 30.
Bell, Lori, Peters, Tom. (2005). Digital library services for all. American Libraries, 36(8), 46 - 49.
Maxwell, Nancy Kalikow. (2004). The seven deadly sins of library technology. American Libraries, 35(8), 40 - 42.
West, Jessamyn. (2003). Google Answers Is Not the Answer. American Libraries, 34(6), 54 - 56. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9923342&site=ehost-live.
Anhang, Abe. (2002). Be it resolved all reference librarians are toast. American Libraries, 33(3), 50 - 51.
Anhang, Abe, Coffman, Steve. (2002). The great reference debate. American Libraries, 33(3), 50 - 54.
Coffman, Steve. (2002). Be it resolved that reference librarians are not toast. American Libraries, 33(3), 51 - 54.
Coffman, Steve. (2002). What's wrong with collaborative digital reference?. American Libraries, 33(11), 56 - 58.
Dougherty, Richard M. (2002). Reference around the clock: Is it in your future?. American Libraries, 33(5), 44 - 46.
Pierce, Jennifer Burek. (2002). Digital discomfort? "Get over it," says McClure. American Libraries, 33(5), 45.
Burek Pierce, Jennifer. (2002). Digital discomfort? "Get over it," says McClure. American Libraries, 33(5), 45.
Bridges, Karl. (2001). Why traditional librarianship matters. American Libraries, 32(10), 52 - 54.
Bourdon, Cathle. (2001). The association's associations: RUSA is leading reference librarians. American Libraries, 32(10), 9.
Coffman, Steve, McGlamery, Susan. (2000). The librarian and Mr. Jeeves. American Libraries, 31(5), 66 - 69.
Schneider, Karen G. (2000). The distributed librarian: Live, online, real-time reference. American Libraries, 31(10), 64.
Schneider, Karen G. (2000). My patron wrote me a letter: the joy of e-mail reference. American Libraries, 31(1), 96.
Coffman, Steve. (1999). Reference as others do it. American Libraries, 30(5), 54 - 56.
Tyckoson, David A. (1999). What's rght with reference.. American Libraries, 30(5), 57 - 63.
Westwood, Karen. (1997). Lights! Camera! Action!. American Libraries, 27(1), 43 - 45.
Whitwell, S. C., Magpantay, J. Andrew. (1997). Internet Public Library: Same metaphors, new service. American Libraries, 28(2), 56 - 59.

Annual Review of Information Science and Technology

Twidale, Michael B., Nichols, David M. (1998). Computer supported cooperative work in information search and retrieval. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 33, 259 - 319.

Ariadne

Ormes, Sarah. (1998). Public libraries corner: Ask a librarian. Ariadne.
Simcox, Schelle. (1997). IPL: The Internet Public Library. Ariadne, 7. Retrieved from http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue7/ipl/.

Arizona Republic

Staudacher, D. (2009). Have a question? Text a librarian. Arizona Republic, 10.

ARL

Ronan, Jana. (2001). Chat reference: an exciting new facet of digital reference services. ARL, 219, 43-47. Retrieved from http://www.arl.org/resources/pubs/br/br219/br219chat.shtml.

ARL Bimonthly Report

Kresh, Diane. (2001). Libraries meet the world wide web: The collaborative digital reference service. ARL Bimonthly Report, 219, 1 - 3. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20070819180119/www.arl.org/resources/pubs/br/br219/br219cdrs.shtml.

Art Documentation

Stahl, Joan, Kresh, Diane Nester. (2001). Online, virtual, e-mail, digital, real time: The next generation of reference services. Art Documentation, 20(1), 26 - 30.
Frank, Ilene B. (1998). E-mail reference service at the University of South Florida: A well-kept secret. Art Documentation, 17(1), 8 - 9.
Lagace, Nettie. (1998). The internet public library's ask a question worldwide reference service. Art Documentation, 17(1), 5 - 7.
Stahl, Joan. (1998). 'Have a question? Click here': Electronic reference at the National Museum of American Art. Art Documentation, 17(1), 10 - 12.
Summers, Robin. (1998). Meeting education information needs through digital reference. Art Documentation, 17(1), 3 - 4.

Art Libraries Journal

Hoyer, Rudiger. (2001). Problems of electronic art reference. Art Libraries Journal, 26(3), 24 - 26.

Aslib Proceedings

Rowlands, Ian, Bawden, David. (1999). Building the digital library on solid research foundations. Aslib Proceedings, 51(8), 275 - 282.

Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services

Wilson, Marion. (2000). Understanding the needs of tomorrow's library user: Rethinking library services for the new age. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 13(2), 81 - 86.
McLean, Michelle. (1999). Expanding library service beyond the walls. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 12(3), 97 - 104.

Australian Academic & Research Libraries

Shaw, Kate, Spink, Amanda. (2009). University Library Virtual Reference Services: Best Practices and Continuous Improvement. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 40(3), 192 - 205.
Lee, Ian J. (2004). Do virtual reference librarians dream of digital reference questions?: A qualitative and quantitative analysis of email and chat reference. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 35(2), 95 - 110.
Truelson, Judith A. (2004). Partnering on virtual reference using QuestionPoint: Guidelines for collaboration between academic libraries in Australia/New Zealand and the US. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 35(4), 301 - 308.
Wilson, Fran, Keys, Jacki. (2004). AskNow! - Evaluating an Australian collaborative chat reference service: A project manager's perspective. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 35(2), 81 - 94.
Koh, Connie. (2003). Reconsidering services for the postmodern student. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 34. Retrieved from http://alianet.alia.org.au/publishing/aarl/34.3/full.text/koh.html.
Roberts, Helen. (2000). Any time, any place: Virtual reference services. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 31(4), 203 - 205.
Pernat, Marie. (1999). Widening the net: Monash University library's flexible, student-centered information services. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 30(3), 200 - 211.

Australian Acaemic & Research Libraries

Lee, Ian J. (2004). Do virtual reference librarians dream of digital reference questions?: A qualitative and quantitative analysis of e-mail and chat reference. Australian Acaemic & Research Libraries, 35(2), 95 - 110.

Australian Library Journal

Davis, Kate. (2007). AskNow instant messaging: innovation in virtual reference. Australian Library Journal, 56(2), 152 - 174.
von Retzlaff, Lothar. (2006). E-commerce for library promotion and sustainability: How library technicians can market themselves and their library's services online. Australian Library Journal, 55(2), 102 - 130.

Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian

Ovadia, Steven. (2011). Quora.com: Another place for users to ask questions. Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 30(3), 176 - 180.

Bibliothecha Medica Canadianna

Vine, Rita. (1998). Software for interactive online reference service. Bibliothecha Medica Canadianna, 20(2), 83 - 84.

Bibliothek Forschung und Praxis

Liu, Jia. (2008). An overview of the digital reference services in German libraries. Bibliothek Forschung und Praxis, 32(3), 359 - 371.

Booklist

Polanka, Sue. (2007). Options for the e-reference collection. Booklist, 104(5), 84 - 85.
Polanka, Sue. (2006). Options for the e-reference collection. Booklist, 103(5), 93 - 95.

British Journal of Educational Technology

Shen, Ruimin, Wang, Minjuan, Pan, Xiaoyan. (2008). Increasing interactivity in blended classrooms through a cutting-edge mobile learning system. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(6), 1073 - 1086.

Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science & Technology

Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Radford, Marie L., Dickey, Timothy J. (2008). On the trail of the elusive non-user: what research in virtual reference environments reveals. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 34(2), 25 - 28.
Janes, Joseph. (2008). An informal history (and possible future) of digital reference. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 34(2), 8 - 10.
Lankes, R. David. (2008). Virtual reference to participatory librarianship: Expanding the conversation. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 34(2), 11 - 14. Retrieved from http://www.asis.org/Bulletin/Dec-07/lankes.html.
Shachaf, Pnina. (2008). Implementation of professional and ethical standards. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 34(2), 20 - 24.
Pomerantz, Jeffrey. (2007). Evaluation of online reference services. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 34(2), 15 - 19.

Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology

Bulletin of the Medical Library Association

Howard, Ellen H., Jankowski, Terry Ann. (1986). Reference services via electronic mail. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 74(1), 41 - 44.
Weise, Freida O., Borgendale, Marilyn. (1986). EARS: Electronic access to reference service. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 74(4), 300 - 304.

Cataloging & Classification Quarterly

Sloan, Bernie. (1990). Remote access: Design implications for the online catalog. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 13(3/4), 133 - 140.

Cause/Effect

Rapple, Brendan A. (1997). The electronic library: New roles for librarians. Cause/Effect, 20. Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/html/cem/cem97/cem971a.html.

Charleston Advisor

Cox, Christopher Nelson. (2006). Think before you collaborate. Charleston Advisor, 7(3), 51 - 52.
Mckinzie, Steve, Lauer, Jonathon D. (2002). Virtual reference: Overrated, inflated and not real. Charleston Advisor, 4(2). Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20021210125113/http://charlestonco.com/features.cfm?id=112&type=ed.
Cichanowicz, Edana M. (2001). Sunday Night Live!: An experiment in real time reference chat--on a shoestring budget. Charleston Advisor, 2(4), 49 - 51.

Christian Science Monitor

Arnoldy, Ben. (2002). Paying for answers online. Christian Science Monitor, 94(166), 14. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0722/p14s01-wmcn.html?rl.

Chronicle of Higher Education

Moran, Caitlin. (2008). Library for hire: Johns Hopkins U sells services to an online college. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/free/2008/12/8310n.htm.
Carlson, Scott. (2005). The Net Generation in the classroom. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(7), A34 - A37.
Carlson, Scott. (2002). New service allows public to pose reference questions without visiting the library. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/free/2002/05/2002053101t.htm.
Blumenstyk, Goldie. (2001). Libraries offer reference services to one another. Chronicle of Higher Education, . Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/free/2001/05/2001052201t.htm.

Code4Lib Journal

Sessoms, Pam, Sessoms, Eric. (2008). LibraryH3lp: A new flexible chat reference system. Code4Lib Journal.

Collection Building

Accart, Jean-Philippe. (2006). The SwisslnfoDesk experiment: The building of a website subject gateway as a contributive part of a virtual reference desk. Collection Building, 25(4), 134 - 138.

Collection Management

Stormont, Sam. (2002). Here, there, and everywhere--Live virtual reference. Collection Management, 26(2), 79 - 87.

College & Research Libraries

Chow, Anthony S., Croxton, Rebecca . (2014). A usability evaluation of academic virtual reference services.. College & Research Libraries, 75(2), 309 - 361.
Chow, Anthony S., Croxton, Rebecca . (2014). A usability evaluation of academic virtual reference services.. College & Research Libraries, 75(2), 309 - 361.
Chow, Anthony S., Croxton, Rebecca . (2014). A usability evaluation of academic virtual reference services.. College & Research Libraries, 75(2), 309 - 361.
Chow, Anthony S., Croxton, Rebecca . (2014). A usability evaluation of academic virtual reference services.. College & Research Libraries, 75(2), 309 - 361.
Chow, Anthony S., Croxton, Rebecca . (2014). A usability evaluation of academic virtual reference services.. College & Research Libraries, 75(2), 309 - 361.
Chow, Anthony S., Croxton, Rebecca . (2014). A usability evaluation of academic virtual reference services.. College & Research Libraries, 75(2), 309 - 361.
Chow, Anthony S., Croxton, Rebecca . (2014). A usability evaluation of academic virtual reference services.. College & Research Libraries, 75(2), 309 - 361.
Bishop, Bradley Wade, Bartlett, Jennifer A. (2013). Where do we go from here? Information academic library staffing through reference transaction analysis. College & Research Libraries, 74(5), 489 - 500.
Bishop, Bradley Wade, Bartlett, Jennifer A. (2013). Where do we go from here? Information academic library staffing through reference transaction analysis. College & Research Libraries, 74(5), 489 - 500.
Passonneau, Sarah, Coffey, Dan. (2011). The role of synchronous virtual reference in teaching and learning: A grounded theory analysis of instant messaging transcripts. College & Research Libraries, 72(3), 276 - 294.
Maximiek, Sarah, Rushton, Erin, Brown, Elizabeth. (2010). Coding into the great unknown: Analyzing instant messaging session transcripts to identify user behaviors and measure quality of service. College & Research Libraries, 71(4), 361 - 373.
Meert, Deborah L., Given, Lisa M. (2009). Measuring Quality in Chat Reference Consortia: A Comparative Analysis Of Reponses to Users' Queries. College & Research Libraries, 70(1), 71-84.
Meert, Deborah L., Given, Lisa M. (2009). Measuring Quality in Chat Reference Consortia: A Comparative Analysis of Responses to Users' Queries. College & Research Libraries, 70(1), 71 - 84.
Murphy, Sarah Anne. (2009). Leveraging Lean Six Sigma to Culture, Nurture, and Sustain Assessment and Change in the Academic Library Environment. College & Research Libraries, 70(3), 215 - 225.
Hernon, Peter, Rossiter, Nancy. (2006). Emotional intelligence: Which traits are most prized?. College & Research Libraries, 67(3), 260 - 275.
Westbrook, Lynn. (2006). Virtual reference training: The second generation. College & Research Libraries, 67(3), 249 - 259.
De Groote, Sandra L., Dorsch, J. L., Collard, Scott, Scherrer, Carol. (2005). Quantifying cooperation: collaborative digital reference service in the large academic library. College & Research Libraries, 66(5), 436 - 454.
Jacoby, JoAnn, O'Brien, Nancy P. (2005). Assessing the impact of reference services provided to undergraduate students. College & Research Libraries, 66(4), 324 - 340.
Foley, Marianne. (2002). Instant messaging reference in an academic library: A case study. College & Research Libraries, 63(1), 36 - 45.
Ferguson, Chris. (2000). "Shaking the conceptual foundations," too: Integrating research and technology support for the next generation of information service. College & Research Libraries, 61(4), 300 - 311.
Richardson Jr., John V. (1998). Question Master: An evaluation of a web-based decision-support system for use in reference environments. College & Research Libraries, 59, 29 - 37.
Ferguson, Chris D., Bunge, Charles A. (1997). The shape of services to come: Values-based reference service for the largely digital library. College & Research Libraries, 58(3), 252 - 265.
Liu, Mengxiong, Redfern, Bernice. (1997). Information-seeking behavior of multicultural students: A case study at San Jose State University. College & Research Libraries, 58, 348 - 354.

College & Research Libraries News

Godbout, Chrissa, Oelker, Sarah K., Stettner, Mary C., . (2015). A novel public question-and-answer board. College & Research Libraries News, 76. Retrieved from .
Godbout, Chrissa, Oelker, Sarah K., Stettner, Mary C., . (2015). A novel public question-and-answer board. College & Research Libraries News, 76. Retrieved from .
Godbout, Chrissa, Oelker, Sarah K., Stettner, Mary C., . (2015). A novel public question-and-answer board. College & Research Libraries News, 76. Retrieved from .
Godbout, Chrissa, Oelker, Sarah K., Stettner, Mary C., . (2015). A novel public question-and-answer board. College & Research Libraries News, 76. Retrieved from .
Godbout, Chrissa, Oelker, Sarah K., Stettner, Mary C., . (2015). A novel public question-and-answer board. College & Research Libraries News, 76. Retrieved from .
Zhang, Jie, Mayer, Nevin. (2014). Proactive chat reference: Getting in the users' space. College & Research Libraries News, 75(4), 202 - 205.
Lotts, Megan, Graves, Stephanie. (2011). Using the iPad for reference services: Librarians go mobile. College & Research Libraries News, 72(4), 217 - 220.
Kohl, Laura, Keating, Maura. (2009). A phone of one's own: Texting at the Bryant University reference desk. College & Research Libraries News, 70(2), 104 - 106, 118.
(2007). ASERL selects virtual reference partner. College & Research Libraries News, 68(10), 625.
Mizzy, Danianne. (2005). Yours, mine, and ours: Reinventing reference at San Jose. College & Research Libraries News, 66(8), 598 - 599.
Bell, Mary Margaret. (2002). Managing reference e-mail in an archival setting. College & Research Libraries News, 63(2), 99 - 101.
Patrick, Susan, Matthews, Cathy. (2002). Ask a librarian live; specialist and broad-based reference capacities expanded by new software. College & Research Libraries News, 63(4), 280 - 281.
Bivens-Tatum, Wayne. (2001). Expert services on the Web. College & Research Libraries News, 62(7), 714 - 716.
Haines, Annette, Grodzinski, Alison. (1999). Web forms: Improving, expanding, and promoting remote reference services. College & Research Libraries News, 60(4), 271 - 272.
Bristow, Ann, Buechley, Mary. (1995). Academic reference service over e-mail: An update. College & Research Libraries News, 56(7), 459 - 462. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~librcsd/reference/email/02.html.
Bristow, Ann. (1992). Academic reference service over electronic mail. College & Research Libraries News, 53(10), 631 - 632. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~librcsd/reference/email/01.html.
Bonham, Miriam. (1987). Library services through electronic mail. College & Research Libraries News, 48(9), 537 - 538.

College & Research Library News

Cox, Christopher. (2002). Becoming part of the course using Blackboard to extend one-shot library instruction. College & Research Library News, 63(1), 11 - 13.

College & Undergraduate Libraries

Gaybill, Jolie Ogg, Bicknell-Holmes, Tracy. (2013). Location, Location, Location: The impact of IM widget placement. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 20(1), 72 - 86.
Bishop, Bradley Wade, Torrence, Matt. (2007). Virtual reference services: consortium versus stand-alone. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 13(4), 117 - 127.
Brown, Elizabeth, Maximiek, Sarah, Rushton, Erin E. (2006). Connecting to students: launching instant messaging reference at Binghamton University. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 13(4), 31 - 42.
McCuliey, Lucretia, Reinauer, Olivia. (2006). Connecting with AIM: the search for a virtual reference niche. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 13(4), 43 - 54.
Pulliam, Beatrice R., McMullen, Susan. (2006). RYT: Are you there? A consortium' s switch to IM Reference. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 13(4), 55 - 70.
Quinn, Todd, Briggs, Lea. (2006). Small collaboration, big effort: The realities of a small statewide collaborative virtual reference service. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 13(4), 97 - 109.
Ronan, Jana, Reakes, Patrick, Ochoa, Marilyn. (2006). Application of reference guidelines in chat reference interactions: A study of online reference skills. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 13(4), 3 - 23.
Summey, Tern Pedersen, Akers, Cynthia. (2006). From TM to collaboration: Providing virtual reference services at a medium-sized institution. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 13(4), 75 - 93.
Taddeo, Laura, Hackenberg, Jill M. (2006). The nuts, bolts, and teaching opportunities of real-time reference. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 13(3), 63 - 85.
Zhuo, Fu, Love, Mark, Norwood, Scott. (2006). Applying RUSA guidelines in the analysis of chat reference transcripts. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 13(1), 75 - 88.
Vilelle, Luke. (2005). Marketing virtual reference: What academic libraries have done. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 12(1), 65 - 79.
Hoskisson, Tam, Wentz, Deleyne. (2001). Simplifying electronic reference: A hybrid approach to one-on-one consultation. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 8(2), 89 - 102.
Kratzert, M. Y., Richey, Debora, Wassman, Carol V. (2001). Tips and snags of academic cyberreference. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 8(2), 73 - 82.

College and Research Libraries

Dempsey, Paula . (2016). "Are you a computer?" Opening exchanges in virtual reference shape the potential for teaching. College and Research Libraries, 77(4), 455 - 468.
Anderson, Craig. (2009). How to be a Person: Tips and Tricks for Virtual Reference. College and Research Libraries, 70(10), 577 - 579.

Colorado Libraries

Bailey-Hainer, Brenda. (2003). Collaborative virtual reference in Colorado. Colorado Libraries, 29(1), 15 - 18.
Heilig, Jean. (2001). Virtual reference at Jones University. Colorado Libraries, 27(2), 35 - 37.
Hohmann, Laura Kaspari. (2000). Providing reference services over the Internet. Colorado Libraries, 26(2), 16 - 18.
Yue, Joseph. (2000). Digitization and outreach in academic libraries. Colorado Libraries, 26(3), 34 - 35.
Sellers, Minna. (1999). Reference over the net: New service or just a new line. Colorado Libraries, 25(1), 6 - 9.

Colorado Municipalities

Johnson, Kris. (2009). AskColorado...get answers day...or night. Colorado Municipalities, 85(2), 12 - 14.

Communications of the ACM

Grudin, Jonathan. (1994). Groupware and social dynamics: Eight challenges for developers. Communications of the ACM, 37(1), 92 - 105.

Community & Junior College Libraries

Johnson, Wendell G. (2011). The evolution of the reference librarian. Community & Junior College Libraries, 17(2), 91 - 103.
Sekyere, Kwabena. (2010). Less words, more action: Using on-the-fly videos and screenshots in your library's IM/chat and email reference transactions. Community & Junior College Libraries, 16(3), 157 - 161.
Profeta, Patricia C. (2007). Effectiveness of asynchronous reference services for distance learning students within Florida's community college system. Community & Junior College Libraries, 14(1), 35 - 61.
Barbier, Pat, Ward, Joyce. (2004). Ensuring quality in a virtual reference environment. Community & Junior College Libraries, 13(1), 55 - 71.
Sachs, Diana. (2004). Ask a librarian: Florida's virtual reference service. Community & Junior College Libraries, 12(4), 49 - 58.
Ryder, Mary Ann, Nebeker, Birte. (1999). Implementing an "Ask a Librarian" electronic reference service. Community & Junior College Libraries, 9(1), 21 - 34.

Computer (IEEE)

Schatz, Bruce, Chen, Hsinchun. (1996). Building large-scale digital libraries. Computer (IEEE), 29(5), 22 - 26.

Computers in Human Behavior

Walther, Joseph B. (2007). Selective self-presentation in computer-mediated communication: Hyperpersonal dimensions of technology, language, and cognition. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(5), 2538 - 2557.

Computers in Libraries

Breitbach, William. (2012). Your guide to Meebo options: Virtual reference summer meltdown and fall shakeout. Computers in Libraries, 32(8), 19 - 23.

Computers In Libraries

Carter, Sunshine, Ambrosi, Thomas. (2011). How to build a desk statistics in less than an hour using forms in Google docs. Computers In Libraries, 31. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/oct11/Carter_Ambrosi.shtml.
Carter, Sunshine, Ambrosi, Thomas. (2011). How to build a desk statistics in less than an hour using forms in Google docs. Computers In Libraries, 31. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/oct11/Carter_Ambrosi.shtml.
Carter, Sunshine, Ambrosi, Thomas. (2011). How to build a desk statistics in less than an hour using forms in Google docs. Computers In Libraries, 31. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/oct11/Carter_Ambrosi.shtml.
Carter, Sunshine, Ambrosi, Thomas. (2011). How to build a desk statistics in less than an hour using forms in Google docs. Computers In Libraries, 31. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/oct11/Carter_Ambrosi.shtml.
Carter, Sunshine, Ambrosi, Thomas. (2011). How to build a desk statistics in less than an hour using forms in Google docs. Computers In Libraries, 31. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/oct11/Carter_Ambrosi.shtml.
Carter, Sunshine, Ambrosi, Thomas. (2011). How to build a desk statistics in less than an hour using forms in Google docs. Computers In Libraries, 31. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/oct11/Carter_Ambrosi.shtml.
Carter, Sunshine, Ambrosi, Thomas. (2011). How to build a desk statistics in less than an hour using forms in Google docs. Computers In Libraries, 31. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/oct11/Carter_Ambrosi.shtml.
Carter, Sunshine, Ambrosi, Thomas. (2011). How to build a desk statistics in less than an hour using forms in Google docs. Computers In Libraries, 31. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/oct11/Carter_Ambrosi.shtml.

Computers in Libraries

Balas, Janet L. (2010). Taking the library to the user. Computers in Libraries, 30(4), 33.
Garlish, Besty Harper. (2009). Doing Virtual Reference Along With Everything Else. Computers in Libraries, 29(1), 8, 10, 30 - 31.
Huwe, Terence K. (2009). Reference Diagnostics for a Virtual World. Computers in Libraries, 29(1), 27 - 29.
Chase, Darren. (2007). Transformative sharing with instant messaging, wikis, interactive maps, and flickr. Computers in Libraries, 27(1), 7 - 56.
Ciocco, Ronalee, Huff, Alice. (2007). Mission Im-possible. Computers in Libraries, 27(1), 26 - 31.
Huwe, Terence K. (2006). Social networking mixes the hip with the proven. Computers in Libraries, 26(10), 31 - 33.
Peters, Tom, Bell, Lori. (2006). Hello IM, Goodbye TTY. Computers in Libraries, 26(5), 18 - 21.
Peters, Tom, Bell, Lori. (2006). Virtual reference services for the print impaired: Separate, but not equal. Computers in Libraries, 26(10), 24 - 27.
Stephens, Michael, Gordon, Rachel Singer. (2006). IM = FASTER virtual reference on the cheap!. Computers in Libraries, 26(4), 36 - 37.
Huwe, Terence K. (2004). Being organic gives reference librarians the edge over computers. Computers in Libraries, May. Retrieved from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/may04/huwe.shtml.
Lupien, Pascal. (2004). Bilingual virtual reference: It's better than searching the open web. Computers in Libraries, 24(5), 6 - 8; 53-54; 56.
Olivares, Olivia. (2004). Helping you buy: Virtual reference systems. Computers in Libraries, 24(5), 25 - 25.
Balas, Janet. (2003). Is the reference librarian real or virtual?. Computers in Libraries, 23(4), 48 - 51.
Balleste, Roy, Russell, Gordon. (2003). Implementing virtual reference: Hollywood technology in real life. Computers in Libraries, 23(4), 14 - 17.
Bromberg, Peter. (2003). Managing a statewide virtual reference service: How Q and A NJ works. Computers in Libraries, 23(4), 26 - 31.
Elias, Tana, Morrill, Stef. (2003). Our virtual reference training camp. Computers in Libraries, 23(4), 10 - 12, 70-72.
Pace, Andrew K. (2003). Virtual reference: What's in a name?. Computers in Libraries, 23(4), 55 - 56.
Schaake, Glenda, Sathan, Eleanor. (2003). We jumped on the live reference bandwagon, and we love the ride. Computers in Libraries, 23(4), 20 - 24-25.
West, Jessamyn. (2003). The librarian is in, and online!. Computers in Libraries, 23(9), 14 - 17.
Pace, Andrew K. (2003). Virtual reference: What's in a name?. Computers in Libraries, 23(4), 55 - 56.
Broughton, Kelly. (2001). Our experiment in online, real-time reference. Computers in Libraries, 21(4), 26 - 31.
Coffman, Steve. (2001). Distance education and virtual reference: Where are we headed?. Computers in Libraries, 21(4), 20 - 25.
Guenther, Kim. (2001). Know thy remote users. Computers in Libraries, 21(4), 52 - 55.
Hoag, Tara J., Cichanowicz, Edana McCaffery. (2001). Going prime time with live chat reference. Computers in Libraries, 21(8), 40 - 44.
Pace, Andrew K. (2001). Distance learning service: It's closer than you think. Computers in Libraries, 21(4), 49.
Abram, Stephen. (2000). Planning for the next wave of convergence. Computers in Libraries, 20(4), 46 - 53.
Brandt, D. Scott. (2000). E-mail makes the world go 'round. Computers in Libraries, 20(10), 64 - 66.
Brandt, D. Scott. (1999). Outreach, or, how far do you reach?. Computers in Libraries, 19(4), 31 - 33.
Lagace, Nettie, McClennen, Michael. (1998). QRC: We call it Quirk. Computers in Libraries, 18(2), 26 - 27.
Lagace, Nettie, McClennen, Michael. (1998). Questions and quirks: Managing an internet-based distributed reference service. Computers in Libraries, 18(2), 24 - 27.
Balas, Janet. (1995). The Internet and reference services. Computers in Libraries, 15(6), 39 - 41.
Dysart, Jane I., Jones, Rebecca J. (1995). Tools for the future: Recreating or `renovating' information services using new technologies. Computers in Libraries, 15(1), 16 - 19.
Feeney, Ann. (1993). Internet applications: Stumpers-L. Computers in Libraries, 5(13), 40 - 42.

Conference Papers International Communication Association 2005 Annual Meeting

Radford, Marie L. (2005). Virtual dialogs: Relational communication in chat reference encounters. Conference Papers International Communication Association 2005 Annual Meeting, New York. 1-38.

Connect Magazine

Schwartz, Jennifer. (2001). Digital reference at Bobst Library. Connect Magazine, Fall. Retrieved from www.nyu.edu/its/pubs/connect/archives/01fall/schwartz.html.

Cultivate Interactive

Fiander, Michelle. (2002). Virtual reference: A letter from North America. Cultivate Interactive, 11. Retrieved from http://www.cultivate-int.org/issue6/reference/index.html.

D-Lib Magazine

(2011). IMLS issues grant for further collaborative of virtual reference services. D-Lib Magazine, 17(11/12), 25.
Miller, Paul. (2006). Coming together around Library 2.0: A focus for discussion and a call to arms. D-Lib Magazine, 12(4). Retrieved from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/april06/miller/04miller.html.
Goodrum, Abby. (2003). Collaboration between digital museums and digital libraries. D-Lib Magazine, 2. Retrieved from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/february03/goodrum/02goodrum.html.
Janes, Joseph, Silverstein, Joanne. (2003). Question negotiation and the technological environment. D-Lib Magazine, 9. Retrieved from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/february03/janes/02janes.html.
Kenney, Anne R., McGovern, Nancy Y., Martinez, Ida T., Heidig, Lance J. (2003). Google meets eBay: what academic librarians can learn from alternative information providers. D-Lib Magazine, 9. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20070405180920/www.dlib.org/dlib/june03/kenney/06kenney.html.
Lankes, R. David. (2003). Current state of digital reference in primary and secondary education. D-Lib Magazine, 9. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20070427090903/http://www.dlib.org/dlib/february03/lankes/02lankes.html.
Penka, Jeffrey T. (2003). The technological challenges of digital reference. D-Lib Magazine, 9. Retrieved from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/february03/penka/02penka.html.
Silverstein, Joanne. (2003). Digital reference: an overview. D-Lib Magazine, 9. Retrieved from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/february03/02guest-editorial.html.
White, Marilyn Domas, Abels, Eileen G., Kaske, Neal. (2003). Evaluation of chat reference service quality. D-Lib Magazine, 9. Retrieved from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/february03/white/02white.html.
Payne, Georgina, Bradbury, David. (2001). The OPAL project: Developing an automated online reference system for distance learners. D-Lib Magazine, 7. Retrieved from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/june01/06inbrief.html.
Jokitalo, Paivi. (2000). The Finnish library portal. D-Lib Magazine, 6. Retrieved from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/october00/10inbrief.html#JOKITALO.
Kresh, Diane Nester. (2000). Offering high quality reference service on the web: The collaborative digital reference service (CDRS). D-Lib Magazine, 6. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20070427090903/http://www.dlib.org/dlib/june00/kresh/06kresh.html.
Missingham, Roxanne. (2000). Report on the virtual reference desk conference october 2000. D-Lib Magazine, 6(12). Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20010417141058/http://www.dlib.org/dlib/december00/12missingham.html.
Wasik, Joann M. (2000). Asking the experts: Digital reference and the virtual reference desk. D-Lib Magazine, 6. Retrieved from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/may00/05inbrief.html.
Rusbridge, Chris. (1998). Towards the hybrid library. D-Lib Magazine, July/August. Retrieved from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july98/rusbridge/07rusbridge.html.

Database Magazine

Pack, Thomas. (1996). A guided tour of the Internet Public Library. Database Magazine, 19(5), 52 - 56.

DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology

Sharma, Sumati, Kumar, Ashok, Singh, Mohinder. (2004). Digital reference service. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology, 24(6), 11 - 18.

DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology

Lihitkar, Shalini R. (2011). Establishing a virtual reference service. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 31(1), 31 - 34.
Ganguly, Shantanu. (2009). Gyanoday Portal: A Virtual Reference Point for Management Knowledge Repository. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 29(2), 31 - 38.

Digital Library Federation Newsletter

Parsons, Anne Marie. (2001). Digital reference: How libraries can compete with Aska services. Digital Library Federation Newsletter, 2. Retrieved from http://www.diglib.org/pubs/news02_01/RefBenchmark.htm.

Division of Computer Research and Technology, National Institutes of Health

Doctor of Philosophy Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University, Tallahassee

Bishop, Bradley Wade. (2010). Chat reference and location-based questions: A multi-method evaluation of a statewide chat reference consortium. Doctor of Philosophy Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University, Tallahassee.

E-JASL: The Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship

Sekyere, Kawabena. (2009). Embedding an IM widget in research databases: Helping users at their point-of-need. E-JASL: The Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, 10(2).

EContent

Grensing-Pophal, Lin. (2009). Social media helps out the help desk. EContent, 32(9), 36 - 41.

Econtent

Marcum, Melissa. (2003). Information around the clock from around the world (global librarian). Econtent, 26(1), 12 - 13.

EContent

Eichler, Linda, Halperin, Michael. (2000). Live Person: Keeping reference alive and kicking. EContent, 23(3), 63 - 66.

Educom Review

Rosenblatt, Susan. (1999). Information technology investments in research libraries. Educom Review, 34(4), 28 - 35.

eGov Magazine

Ryan, Ciaran. (2000). Virtual librarians, real research. eGov Magazine. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20040703235037/www.partnershipamerica.com/community/stories_detail/0,1413,-10010,00.html.

Electronic Journal of Academic & Special Librarianship

Ryan, Jenna, Daugherty, Alice L., Mauldin, Emily C. (2006). Exploring the LSU libraries' virtual reference transcripts: An analysis. Electronic Journal of Academic & Special Librarianship, 7(3), 1 - 1.
Chase, Darren. (2005). Papa's got a brand new (virtual) bag: real-time chat and reference discourse. Electronic Journal of Academic & Special Librarianship, 6(1), 1 - 1.

Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship

Ralph, Lynette. (2009). If you build it they may not come: the case of QuestionPoint. Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, 10(2).

Electronic Journal of Sociology

Bellamy, Al, Hanewicz, Cheryl. (1999). Social Psychological Dimensions of Electronic Communication. Electronic Journal of Sociology, 4(1). Retrieved from http://www.sociology.org/content/vol004.001/bellamy.html.

Electronic Library

Pinto, Maria, Manso, Ramon A. (2012). Virtual reference services: Defining the criteria and indicators to evaluate them. Electronic Library, 30(1), 51 - 69.
Jin, Yi, Huang, Min, Lin, Haoming, Guo, Jing. (2007). Study on the collaboration and mechanism of the virtual reference service. Electronic Library, 25(6), 733 - 740.
Caufield, James. (2005). Tricky devil: A humorous training techique for the chat reference environment. Electronic Library, 23(4), 377 - 382.

ERIC Digest

Kasowitz, Abby S. (2001). Trends and issues in digital reference services. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20070427090903/http://www.ericit.org/digests/EDO-IR-2001-07.shtml.
Wasik, Joann M. (1999). Building and maintaining digital reference services. ERIC Digest, . Retrieved from http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-4/digital.htm.

Evidence Based Library & Information Practice

Annie Hugh. (2014). Content Analysis of Reference Transactions Provides Guidance Regarding Staffing of Library Service Points. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice , 9(2), 31-33.
Annie Hugh. (2014). Content Analysis of Reference Transactions Provides Guidance Regarding Staffing of Library Service Points. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice , 9(2), 31-33.
Annie Hugh. (2014). Content Analysis of Reference Transactions Provides Guidance Regarding Staffing of Library Service Points. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice , 9(2), 31-33.
Annie Hugh. (2014). Content Analysis of Reference Transactions Provides Guidance Regarding Staffing of Library Service Points. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice , 9(2), 31-33.
Annie Hugh. (2014). Content Analysis of Reference Transactions Provides Guidance Regarding Staffing of Library Service Points. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice , 9(2), 31-33.

Evidence Based Library & Information Practice

Waugh, Jennifer. (2013). Formality in chat reference: Perceptions of 17-to 25- year-old university students. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice, 8(1), 19 - 34.
Hughes, Annie M. (2013). There is a relationship between resource expenditures and reference transactions in academic libraries. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice, 8(1), 87 - 89.
Giovanna, Badia. (2012). Email reference transactions reveal unique patterns about end-user information seeking behaviour and librarians' responses in academic and public libraries outside U.S. and Canada. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice, 7(1), 110 - 112.
Hughes, Annie M. (2010). Adherence to RUSA's guidelines for virtual reference services is below expected in academic libraries. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice, 5(4), 105 - 107.
Newton Miller, Laura . (2010). Quality of online chat reference answers differ between local and consortium library staff: Providing consortium staff with more local information can mitigate these differences. Evidence Based Library & Information Practice, 5(1), 132 - 134.

Evidence Based Library And Information Practice

Howe, Carol D. (2011). Users of virtual reference are more satisfied with the service they receive than the providers of that service think they are. Evidence Based Library And Information Practice, 6(2), 36 - 38.

Evidence Based Library and Information Practice

Rourke, Lorna, Lupien, Pascal. (2010). Learning from chatting: How our virtual reference questions are giving us answers. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 5(2), 63 - 74.
Cogo, Elise. (2009). Libraries demonstrate low adherence to virtual reference service guidelines. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 4(2), 152 - 154.
Hall, Stephanie. (2008). Collaborative chat reference service effectiveness varies by question type for public library patrons. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 3(1), 72 - 74.
Furlan, Wendy. (2007). Virtual racism rears its head: Uncovering librarian bias in e-mail reference services. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 2(2), 97 - 100.
Lupien, Pascal, Rourke, Lorna Evelyn. (2007). Out of the question!… How we are using our students' virtual reference questions to add a personal touch to a virtual world. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 2(2), 67 - 80.
Shrimplin, Aaron, Hurst, Susan. (2007). A virtual standoff -- Using Q Methodology to analyze virtual reference. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 2(4), 4 - 21.
Walker, Stephanie R. (2007). Low volume, funding, staffing and technical problems are key reasons for discontinuation of chat reference services. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 2(3), 97 - 100.

Faslname-Ye Ketab/Library and Information Studies

Dourdi, Fariborz, Farhoodi, Fa'ezeh. (2009). The impact of virtual reality technology on library and information activities and process. [Transliterated title not available]. Faslname-Ye Ketab/Library and Information Studies, 19(4), 109 - 124.

Federal Computer Week

Sarkar, Dibya. (2002). Library encourages patrons to chat.. Federal Computer Week.
Langlois, Greg. (2001). A need to know. Federal Computer Week.

Feliciter

Gaudet, Franceen, Dinberg, Donna. (2003). Virtual reference Canada. Feliciter, 49(2), 82 - 84.
West, Kathy. (2002). Managing and staffing a virtual reference service pilot project. Feliciter, 48(2), 64 - 65.
Williamson, Janet. (2002). The reality of virtual reference: A view from the edge. Feliciter, 48(3), 110 - 111.

First Monday

Huffaker, David. (2004). Spinning yarns around the digital fire: Storytelling and dialogue among youth on the Internet. First Monday, 9. Retrieved from http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/issue/view/166.
Zick, Laura. (2000). The work of information mediators: A comparison of librarians and intelligent software agents.. First Monday, 5. Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue5_5/zick/index.html.

FirstMonday

Nardi, Bonnie A., O'Day, Vicki L. (1999). Special issue with excerpts from: Information ecologies: Using technology with heart. FirstMonday, 4. Retrieved from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue4_5/nardi_chapter4.html.

Florida Libraries

Mariner, Vince, Harrison, Lucy. (2004). Florida's "Ask a Librarian" service: A collaborative success. Florida Libraries, 47(1), 8 - 9.
Colvin, Gloria. (2001). Remote, accessible, and on call: Reference librarians go live. Florida Libraries, 44(1), 10 - 12.

Gateways

Missingham, Roxanne. (2001). Virtual reference: online questions and answers. Gateways, 49. Retrieved from http://www.nla.gov.au/pub/gateways/archive/49/p19a01.html.

Georgia Library Quarterly

Carpenter, Cathy, Renfro, Crystal. (2007). Twelve years of online reference services at Georgia Tech: where we have been and where we are going. Georgia Library Quarterly, 44(2), 6 - 9.
Walker, Saundra. (2006). Academic Library Services for the Millennial Generation. Georgia Library Quarterly, 43(2).
Lonberger, Jana. (1999). Remote possibilities: A "fill in the blanks" approach to creating web-based reference and instructional services. Georgia Library Quarterly, 36(4), 5 - 13.

Government Computer News

Jackson, William. (2001). Faster facts. Government Computer News, . Retrieved from http://www.gcn.com/print/vol20_no12/4290-1.html?topic=tech-report.

Government Information Quarterly

Burroughs, Jennie M. (2009). What Users Want: Assessing Government Information Preferences to Drive Information Services. Government Information Quarterly, 26(1), 203 - 218.
Mon, Lorri. (2000). Digital reference service. Government Information Quarterly, 17(3), 309 - 318.
Barkley, Daniel C. (1998). Public service guidelines in an electronic environment. Government Information Quarterly, 15(1), 73 - 85.
Hull, Theodore J., Adams, Margaret O'Neill. (1995). Electronic communications for reference services: A case study. Government Information Quarterly, 12(3), 297 - 308.

Haworth Information Press

West, Jessamyn. Digital versus non-digital reference: as a librarian online and offline. Haworth Information Press.
West, Jessamyn. Digital versus non-digital reference: as a librarian online and offline. Haworth Information Press.

Health Information & Libraries Journal

Rockliff, Sue, Peterson, Mary, Martin, Kath, Curtis, Dorothy. (2005). Chasing the sun: A virtual reference service between SAHSLC (SA) and SWICE (UK). Health Information & Libraries Journal, 22(2), 117 - 123.

IEEE Expert Magazine

Carbonell, Jamie. (1996). Digital librarians: Beyond the digital book stack. IEEE Expert Magazine, 11(3), 11 - 13.

Illinois Libraries

Bartolini, Laurie. (2005). The evolution of virtual reference in Illinois. Illinois Libraries, 85(4), 56 - 57.

Illinois Library Association Reporter

Brigell, Bruce. (2008). Re-thinking "virtual" reference. Illinois Library Association Reporter, 26(4), 12 - 13.

Impact

Hampson, Andrew. (1998). Information Staff Roles in the Hybrid Library. Impact, 1(8), 129 - 132. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/19991116130139/http://builder.bham.ac.uk/publications/html/impact980108.asp.

inCite

Davis, Kate. (2007). Bibliotherapy. inCite, 28(1), 18 - 19.
Rigby, Alison, Zhang, Susan, Smithers, Amanda. (2006). Digital reference: Key performance indicators. inCite, 27(6), 7.
(2005). Building a service that they want. inCite, 26(11), 13. Retrieved from http://alia.org.au/publishing/incite/2005/11/.

Indiana Libraries

Lee, Kuk. (1996). E-mail reference service... HUH?. Indiana Libraries, 15(2), 57 - 61.

Information Institute of Syracuse

McClure, Charles R., Lankes, R. David. (2001). Assessing quality in digital reference services: A research prospectus.. http://web.archive.org/web/20070329091655/quartz.syr.edu/quality/Overview.htm.

Information Management Report

Bossueau, D. L. (2001). Digital reference services: Virtual or real?. Information Management Report, 1 - 4.

Information Outlook

Hurst-Wahl, Jill. (2007). Librarians and Second Life. Information Outlook, 11(6), 45 - 53.
Abram, Stephen. (2005). Three ways to understand professional-grade virtual reference. Information Outlook, 9(7), 34 - 35.
Abram, Stephen. (2004). Twenty reasons to love IM. Information Outlook, 8(10), 40 - 42.
(2003). Reference and instruction services go virtual as a form of outreach: Case studies from academic libraries. Information Outlook, 7(8), 20 - 27.
Calzonetti, Jo Ann, deChambeau, Aimee. (2003). Virtual reference: A telecommuting opportunity?. Information Outlook, 7(10), 34 - 39.
Williams, Clara R., Walters, Tyler O. (2003). Reference and instruction services go virtual as a form of outreach: Case studies from academic libraries. Information Outlook, 7(8), 20 - 24; 26-27.
Marvin, Stephen. (2003). Discovering corporate virtual reference services. Information Outlook, 7(9), 20 - 22, 25-26.
Williams, Clara R., Walters, Tyler O. (2003). Reference and instruction services go virtual as a form of outreach: Case studies from academic libraries. Information Outlook, 7(8), 20 - 24, 26-27.

Information Processing & Management

Pomerantz, Jeffrey, Nicholson, Scott, Belanger, Yvonne, Lankes, R. David. (2004). The current state of digital reference: Validation of a general digital reference model through a survey of digital reference services. Information Processing & Management, 40(2), 347 - 363.
Twidale, Michael B., Nichols, David M., Paice, Chris D. (1997). Browsing is a collaborative process. Information Processing & Management, 33(6), 761 - 783.

Information Research

Yin, Zhang, Deng, Sheng. (2014). Social question and answer services versus library virtual reference: evaluation and comparison from the users\' perspective.. Information Research, 19(4), 422 - 440.
Yin, Zhang, Deng, Sheng. (2014). Social question and answer services versus library virtual reference: evaluation and comparison from the users\' perspective.. Information Research, 19(4), 422 - 440.
Yin, Zhang, Deng, Sheng. (2014). Social question and answer services versus library virtual reference: evaluation and comparison from the users\' perspective.. Information Research, 19(4), 422 - 440.
Yin, Zhang, Deng, Sheng. (2014). Social question and answer services versus library virtual reference: evaluation and comparison from the users\' perspective.. Information Research, 19(4), 422 - 440.
Yin, Zhang, Deng, Sheng. (2014). Social question and answer services versus library virtual reference: evaluation and comparison from the users\' perspective.. Information Research, 19(4), 422 - 440.
Yin, Zhang, Deng, Sheng. (2014). Social question and answer services versus library virtual reference: evaluation and comparison from the users\' perspective.. Information Research, 19(4), 422 - 440.
Yin, Zhang, Deng, Sheng. (2014). Social question and answer services versus library virtual reference: evaluation and comparison from the users\' perspective.. Information Research, 19(4), 422 - 440.
Radford, Marie L., Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Mikitish, Stephanie, Alpert, Mark, Shah, Chirag, Cooke, Nicole. (2013). Conceptualizing collaboration and community in virtual reference and social question and answer services. , . S06-.
Radford, Marie L., Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Mikitish, Stephanie, Alpert, Mark, Shah, Chirag, Cooke, Nicole. (2013). Conceptualizing collaboration and community in virtual reference and social question and answer services. , . S06-.
Kwon, Nahyun. (2006). User satisfaction with referrals at a collaborative virtual reference service. Information Research, 11(2), 1.
Nilsen, Kirsti. (2004). The library visit study: User experiences at the virtual reference desk. Information Research, 9. Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/9-2/paper171.html.

Information Retrieval and Library Automation

Hattery, Maxine. (2002). Computers in libraries: Virtual reference plus dead and emerging technologies. Information Retrieval and Library Automation, 27(11), 1 - 5.

Information Searcher

Lankes, R. David. (1994). The internet model. Information Searcher, 7(1), 3 - 6.

Information Technology & Libraries

Dalrymple, Tam. (2008). "Just-in-case" answers: The twenty-first-century vertical file. Information Technology & Libraries, 27(4), 25 - 28.

Information Technology and Disabilities

Ryan, Sara. (1995). What is the Internet Public Library, and why should I care?. Information Technology and Disabilities, 2. Retrieved from http://people.rit.edu/easi/itd/itdv02n2/ipl.htm.

Information Technology and Libraries

Maceli, Monica, Wiedenbeck, Susan, Abels, Eileen. (2011). The Internet Public Library (IPL): An exploratory case study on user perceptions. Information Technology and Libraries, 31(1), 16 - 23.
Charnigo, Laurie, Barnett-Ellis, Paula. (2007). Checking out Facebook.com: The impact of a digital trend on academic libraries. Information Technology and Libraries, 26(1), 23 - 34.
Boyer, Joshua. (2001). Virtual reference at North Carolina State: The first one hundred days. Information Technology and Libraries, 20(3), 122 - 128.
Ciccone, Karen. (2001). Virtual reference, today and tomorrow. Information Technology and Libraries, 20(3), 120 - 121.
Coffman, Steve. (2001). We'll take it from here: Further developments we'd like to see in virtual reference software. Information Technology and Libraries, 20(3), 149 - 153.
Fagan, Jody Condit, Calloway, Michele. (2001). Creating an instant messaging reference system. Information Technology and Libraries, 20(4), 202 - 212.
Kresh, Diane Nester. (2001). From sshh to search engine: reference.net on the Web. Information Technology and Libraries, 20(3), 139 - 142.
McClennen, Michael, Memmott, Patricia. (2001). Roles in digital reference. Information Technology and Libraries, 20(3), 143 - 148.
Stormont, Sam. (2001). Going where the users are: Live digital reference. Information Technology and Libraries, 20(3), 129 - 134.
Viggiano, Rachel G., Ault, Meredith. (2001). Online library instruction for online students. Information Technology and Libraries, 20(3), 135 - 138.
Kisby, Cynthia, Kilman, Marcus, Hinshaw, Carole. (1999). Extended reference service in the electronic environment. Information Technology and Libraries, 18(2), 92 - 95.

Information Today

Hane, Paula J. (2011). Internet public library milestones. Information Today, 28(4), 8.
Gregory, Gwen M. (2009). Customizing Virtual Reference Tools for a Perfect Fit. Information Today, 26(3), 40.
Calishain, Tara. (2002). New Google answers service raises a few questions of its own. Information Today, 19(6), 50 - 51.
Calishain, Tara. (2002). Yahoo! service offers more advice than expertise. Information Today, 19(6), 51.
Quint, Barbara. (2002). The digital library of the future. Information Today, 19(7), 8 - 12.
Quint, Barbara. (2002). QuestionPoint marks new era in virtual reference. Information Today, 19(7), 50 - 54.
Quint, Barbara. (2002). Some advice for Google Answers. Information Today, 19(6), 8 - 12.
Breeding, Marshall. (2001). Providing virtual reference service. Information Today, 18(4), 42 - 43.
Saunders, Laverna. (2001). Building the virtual reference desk. Information Today, 18(3), 25 - 27.

Information Today News Breaks

Quint, Barbara. (2004). OCLC acquires 24/7 reference rervices. Information Today News Breaks, . Retrieved from http://newsbreaks.infotoday.com/nbReader.asp?ArticleId=16387.

Informed Librarian Online

Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Radford, Marie L. (2007). The thrill of the chase in cyberspace: A report of focus groups with live chat librarians. Informed Librarian Online. Retrieved from http://www.informedlibrarian.com/guestForum.cfm?FILE=gf0701.html.

Innovative Higher Education

Steinbronn, Peggy, Merideth, Eunice. (2008). Perceived utility of methods and instructional strategies used in online and face-to-face teaching environments. Innovative Higher Education, 32(5), 265 - 278.

Interent Reference Services Quarterly

Taddeo, Laura. (2008). R U There? How to reach a virtual audience through affordable marketing strategies. Interent Reference Services Quarterly, 13(2/3), 227 - 244.
Burich, Nancy J, Devlin, Frances A. (2004). Hawkhelp: From chat reference to a student services portal. Interent Reference Services Quarterly, 9(3/4), 81 - 98.

Interface

(2008). University of South Carolina Library and Information Science Program to support ASERL's regional online reference service. Interface, 30(1), 12.

International Information & Library Review

González Fernandez-Villavicencio, Nieves. (2010). Helping students become literate in a digital, networking-based society: A literature review and discussion. International Information & Library Review, 42(2), 124 - 136.

International Journal of Service Industry Management

Bennington, Lynne, Cummane, James, Conn, Paul. (2000). Customer satisfaction and call centers: an Australian study. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(2), 162-173.

Internet and Higher Education

Stein, David S., Wanstreet, Constance E., Glazer, Hilda R., Engle, Cheryl L., Harris, Ruth A., Johnston, Susan M., Simons, Mona R., Trinko, Lynn A. (2007). Creating shared understanding through chats in a community of inquiry. Internet and Higher Education, 10(2), 103 - 115.

Internet Reference and Services Quarterly

Vardeman, Kimberly K., Barba, I. (2014). Reference in 160 Characters or Less: The Role of Text Messaging in Virtual Reference Services.. Internet Reference and Services Quarterly, 19. Retrieved from .
Vardeman, Kimberly K., Barba, I. (2014). Reference in 160 Characters or Less: The Role of Text Messaging in Virtual Reference Services.. Internet Reference and Services Quarterly, 19. Retrieved from .
Vardeman, Kimberly K., Barba, I. (2014). Reference in 160 Characters or Less: The Role of Text Messaging in Virtual Reference Services.. Internet Reference and Services Quarterly, 19. Retrieved from .
Vardeman, Kimberly K., Barba, I. (2014). Reference in 160 Characters or Less: The Role of Text Messaging in Virtual Reference Services.. Internet Reference and Services Quarterly, 19. Retrieved from .
Vardeman, Kimberly K., Barba, I. (2014). Reference in 160 Characters or Less: The Role of Text Messaging in Virtual Reference Services.. Internet Reference and Services Quarterly, 19. Retrieved from .
Vardeman, Kimberly K., Barba, I. (2014). Reference in 160 Characters or Less: The Role of Text Messaging in Virtual Reference Services.. Internet Reference and Services Quarterly, 19. Retrieved from .

Internet Reference Service Quarterly

Burger, Amy, Park, Jung-ran, Li, Guisu. (2010). Application of reference guidelines for assessing the quality of the Internet Public Library's virtual reference services. Internet Reference Service Quarterly, 15(4), 209 - 226.

Internet Reference Services Quarterly

Coughenour, Amy D. (2017). Virtual reference in a global context: Going beyond local needs. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 22(1), 55 - 62.
Coughenour, Amy D. (2017). Virtual reference in a global context: Going beyond local needs. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 22(1), 55 - 62.
Fuller, Kate , Dryden Nancy . (2015). Chat reference analysis to determine accuracy and staffing needs at one academic library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 20(3-4), 163 - 181.
Fuller, Kate , Dryden Nancy . (2015). Chat reference analysis to determine accuracy and staffing needs at one academic library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 20(3-4), 163 - 181.
Fuller, Kate , Dryden Nancy . (2015). Chat reference analysis to determine accuracy and staffing needs at one academic library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 20(3-4), 163 - 181.
Fuller, Kate , Dryden Nancy . (2015). Chat reference analysis to determine accuracy and staffing needs at one academic library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 20(3-4), 163 - 181.
Fuller, Kate , Dryden Nancy . (2015). Chat reference analysis to determine accuracy and staffing needs at one academic library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 20(3-4), 163 - 181.
Owens, Tammi M. (2014). Communication, face saving, and anxiety at an academic library\'s virtual reference service. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 18(2), 139 - 168.
Meredith, William. (2013). Web-Scale search and virtual reference service:How summon Is impacting reference question complexity and reference service delivery. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 18(1), 1 - 13.
Meredith, William. (2013). Web-Scale search and virtual reference service:How summon Is impacting reference question complexity and reference service delivery. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 18(1), 1 - 13.
Arvina, Shelley D., Kaiserb, Anthony. (2012). Case study of synchronous virtual reference in an academic library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 17(2), 83 - 93.
Arvin, Shelley D, Kaiser, Anthony. (2012). Case study of synchronous virtual reference in an academic library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 17(2), 83 - 93.
Kayongo, Jessica, Van Jacob, Elizabeth. (2011). Burning the midnight oil: Librarians, students, and late-night chat reference at the University of Notre Dame. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 16(3), 99 - 109.
Bravender, Patricia, Lyon, Colleen, Molaro, Anthony. (2011). Should chat reference be staffed by librarians? An assessment of chat reference at an academic library using LibStats. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 16(3), 111 - 127.
Spencer, Brett, Dodd, Lauren B., Friedman, William C., Xu, Qiong. (2011). The web beyond Google: Innovative search tools and their implications for reference services. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 16(1/2), 11 - 34.
Powers, Amanda Clay, Nolen, David, Zhang, Li, Xu, Yue, Peyton, Gail. (2010). Moving from the consortium to the reference desk keeping chat and improving reference at the MSU Libraries. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 15(3), 169 - 188.
Chatfield, Amy J., Ratajeski, Meissa A., Wang, John, Bardyn, Tania p. (2010). Communicating with faculty, staff, and students using library blogs: Results from a survey of academic health sciences libraries. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 15(3), 149 - 168.
Ola, Christopher Olumuyiwa. (2010). Reference service delivery system in West Africa: Limitations and prospects as seen from Kenneth Dike Library, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 15(2), 97 - 106.
Avery, Susan, Ward, David. (2010). Reference is my classroom: Setting instructional goals for academic library reference services. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 15(1), 35 - 51.
Jones, Sherri, Kayongo, Jessica, Scotfield, John. (2009). Ask Us Anytime: Creating a Searchable FAQ Using Email and Chat Reference Transcripts. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 14(67), 81.
Profit, Steven K. (2009). A History of the Developments in Virtual Reference Services at the College of Charleston Library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 14(1), 3 - 12.
Breitbach, William, Demars, J. Michael. (2009). Enhancing Virtual Reference: Techniques and Technologies to Engage Users and Enrich Interaction. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 14(3), 82 - 91.
Booth, Char. (2008). Developing Skype-based reference services. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 13(2/3), 147 - 163.
Buczynski, James A. (2008). Libraries begin to engage their menacing mobile phone hordes without shhhhh!. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 13(2), 261 - 269.
Hillyer, Nora, Parker, Linda L. (2006). Video reference--it's not your typical virtual reference: Video reference services for South Campus at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 11(4), 41 - 54.
Houlson, Van, McCready, Kate, Pfahl, Carla Steinberg. (2006). A window into our patron's needs: Analyzing data from chat transcripts.. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 11(4), 19 - 39.
King, Valery, Nichols, Jane, Padilla, Greg, Cox, Christopher N. (2006). Moving back to campus: Creating a local virtual reference service. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 11(3), 1 - 17.
Sloan, Bernie. (2006). Twenty years of virtual reference. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 11(2), 91 - 95.
Straw, Joseph E. (2006). Using canned messages in virtual communication. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 11(1), 39 - 49.
VanScoy, Amy. (2006). Page us: Combining the best of in-person and virtual reference service to meet in-library patron needs. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 11(2), 15 - 25.
Ward, David, Cox, Christopher N. (2006). Instant messaging and chat reference. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 11(1), 103 - 106.
Ward, David. (2005). How much is enough? Managing chat length. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 10(2), 89 - 93.
Ward, David. (2005). Why users choose chat: A survey of behavior and motivations. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 10(1), 29 - 46.
Ward, David. (2005). Chat reference: New challenges for a new service. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 10(1), 95 - 97.
Chang, Hye Rhan, & Peterson Holland, Maurita. (2005). User satisfaction survey of Ask-A-Question service at the public library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 10(2), 61 - 73.
Casey, Anne Marie. (2004). A historical overview on Internet reference services for distance learners. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 9(3), 5 - 18.
Tipton, Carol J., Earp, Vanessa J. (2004). One school's experience with virtual reference. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 9(3), 99 - 114.
Arnold, Judith M., Csir, Floyd, Sias, Jennifer, Zhang, Jingpin. (2004). Does anyone need help out there? Lessons from designing online help. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 9(3/4), 115 - 134.
Barr, Belinda, Conley, Jerome, Goode, Joanne. (2003). Chat is now: Administrative issues. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 19 - 25.
Belanger, Yvonne, Lankes, R. David, Shostack, Pauline Lynch. (2003). Managing data collection for real-time reference: Lessons from the AskERIC Live! experience. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 137 - 148.
Ciccone, Karen, VanScoy, Amy. (2003). Managing an established virtual reference service. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 95 - 105.
Cichanowicz, Edana McCaffery. (2003). Live reference chat from a customer service perspective. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 27 - 32.
Colvin, Gloria. (2003). Florida libraries go live: A look at chat reference services. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 107 - 116.
Fagan, Jody Condit, Desai, Christina. (2003). Site search and instant messaging reference: A comparative study. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 167 - 182. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lxh&AN=27647816&site=ehost-live.
Heise, Jennifer, Kimmel, Stacey. (2003). Reading the river: The state of the art of real-ime reference. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 1 - 7.
Lipow, Anne Grodzins. (2003). The librarian has left the building-But to where?. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 9 - 18.
Marsteller, Matthew R., Mizzy, Danianne. (2003). Exploring the synchronous digital reference interaction for query types question negotiation, and patron response.. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 149 - 165.
Martin, Julie. (2003). Ask a librarian virtual reference services at the Boeing library.. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 127 - 135.
McClellan, Cynthia S. (2003). Live reference in an academic health sciences library: the Q and A NJ experience at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Health Sciences lLbrary at Stratford. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 117 - 126.
Moeller, Sherry Engle. (2003). Ask a Librarian: An analysis of an e-mail reference service at a large academic library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(3), 47 - 61.
Ronan, Jana. (2003). Staffing a real-time reference service: The University of Florida experience. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 33 - 47.
Schwartz, Jennifer. (2003). Towards a typology of e-mail reference questions. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(3), 1 - 15.
Sweet, Marianne F., Lisa, David M., Colston, Dale E. (2003). Q and A NJ: Service design and impact. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 49 - 69.
Wanserski, John. (2003). From AskWendt Live to QuestionPoint: A chronology of the development of a persistently virtual reference product and service. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 71 - 94.
Wanserski , Jo. (2003). From Ask Wendt Live to QuestionPoint: A Chronology of the Development of a Persistently Virtual Reference Product and Service. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(1/2), 71 - 94.
Tucker, James Cory. (2003). Devloping a chat reference training program. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 8(4), 11 - 25.
Bowman, Vibiana. (2002). The virtual librarian and the electronic reference interview. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 7(3), 3 - 14.
Qayyum, Muhammad Asim. (2002). Internet reference services and the help desk: Does the nature of a user's query really change?. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 7(3), 16 - 22.
Taher, Mohamed. (2002). Real-time (synchronous interactive) reference interview: A selected bibliography. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 7(3), 35 - 41.
Taher, Mohamed. (2002). The reference interview through asynchronous e-mail and synchronous interactive reference: Does it save the time of the interviewee?. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 7(3), 23 - 34.
Taher, Mohamed. (2002). The web-based reference interview: A symposium.. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 7(3), 1 - 2.
Broughton, Kelly, Hunker, Stephanie Dennis, Singer, Carol A. (2001). Why use web contact center software for digital reference?. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 6(2), 1 - 12.
Mess, John A. (2001). "I want an expert, not a librarian": expert advisory services, library reference, and knowledge economics on the internet.. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 6(1), 49 - 67.
Moody, Marilyn K. (2000). Sell a shirt, answer a reference question: reference services in the year 2000. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 5(1), 1 - 3.
Crawford, Gregory Alan, White, Gary W. (1998). Migrating to Internet-based reference services: Issues for the smaller academic library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 3(4), 3 - 18.
Moore, Amanda. (1998). As I sit studying: WWW-based reference services. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 3(1), 29 - 36.
Engle, M. O. (1996). Using World Wide Web software for reference and instruction. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 1(2), 7 - 15.
Filby, A. M. Iliana. (1996). Proposal for implementing multi-user database (MUD) technology in an academic library. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 2(1), 75 - 95.

Internet Research

Janes, Joseph. (2000). Digital reference: Services, attitudes, and evaluation. Internet Research, 10(3), 256 - 258.
Hahn, Karla L. (1998). Qualitative investigation of an e-mail mediated help service. Internet Research, 8(2), 123 - 135.
Lankes, R. David. (1995). AskERIC and the virtual library: Lessons for emerging digital libraries. Internet Research, 5(1), 56 - 63.

Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship

Paster, Amy, Fescemyer, Kathy, Henry, Nancy. (2006). Assessing reference using the Wisconsin-Ohio reference evaluation program in academic science library. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, . Retrieved from http://www.istl.org//06-spring/article2.html.
Sears, JoAnn. (2001). Chat reference service: An analysis of one semester's data. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, 32. Retrieved from http://www.istl.org/01-fall/article2.html.

JASSIST Quarterly

Smith, Margaret, Conte, Jill, Guss, Samant. (2016). Understanding academic patrons’ data needs through virtual reference transcripts: Preliminary findings from New York University libraries. JASSIST Quarterly, 40(1), 20 - 26.

Journal of Academic Librarianship

Yang, Sharon Q., Dalal, Heather . (2015). Delivering Virtual Reference Services on the Web: An Investigation into the Current Practice by Academic Libraries.. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(1), 68 - 86.
Yang, Sharon Q., Dalal, Heather . (2015). Delivering Virtual Reference Services on the Web: An Investigation into the Current Practice by Academic Libraries.. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(1), 68 - 86.
Yang, Sharon Q., Dalal, Heather . (2015). Delivering Virtual Reference Services on the Web: An Investigation into the Current Practice by Academic Libraries.. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(1), 68 - 86.
Yang, Sharon Q., Dalal, Heather . (2015). Delivering Virtual Reference Services on the Web: An Investigation into the Current Practice by Academic Libraries.. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(1), 68 - 86.
Yang, Sharon Q., Dalal, Heather . (2015). Delivering Virtual Reference Services on the Web: An Investigation into the Current Practice by Academic Libraries.. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(1), 68 - 86.
Yang, Sharon Q., Dalal, Heather . (2015). Delivering Virtual Reference Services on the Web: An Investigation into the Current Practice by Academic Libraries.. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(1), 68 - 86.
Yang, Sharon Q., Dalal, Heather . (2015). Delivering Virtual Reference Services on the Web: An Investigation into the Current Practice by Academic Libraries.. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(1), 68 - 86.
Dubnjakovic, Ana. (2012). Electronic resources expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2), 94 - 100.
Mu, Xiangming, Dimitroff, Alexandra, Jordan, Jeanette, Burclaff, Natal. (2011). A survey and empirical study of virtual reference service in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(2), 120-129.
Devine, Christopher, Bounds Paladino, Emily , & Davis, John A. (2011). Chat reference training after one decade: The results of a national survey of academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(3), 197 - 206.
Bradford, Jane T., Costello, Barbara, Lenholt, Robert. (2005). Reference service in the digital age: An analysis of sources used to answer reference questions. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 31(3), 263 - 272.

Journal of Academic Library Information Sciences

Pu, Xiao-hao. (2007). Integration of reference services in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Library Information Sciences, 59 - 61.

Journal of Access Services

Booth, Char. (2007). Video reference and the library kiosk: Experimentation and evaluation. Journal of Access Services, 5(1/2), 47 - 53.

Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship

Doan, Tomalee, Ferry, Kristine. (2006). Instant messaging (IM): Providing services and enhancing communication. Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship, 12(2), 17 - 22.
Halperin, Michael, Eichler, Linda, Khanna, Delphine, Dreyer, Kathleen. (2006). Just the FAQ's, Ma'am: Sharing a business knowledge database. Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship, 12(1), 33 - 40.

Journal of College & University Libraries

Yasui, Yumiko. (2004). Digital reference services of university libraries in Japan: Results and analysis of questionnaire research. Journal of College & University Libraries, 18 - 29.

Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication

Sarkar, Mitra Barun, Butler, Brian, Steinfield, Charles. (1995). Intermediaries and Cybermediaries: Sarkar, Butler and Steinfield. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 1(3). Retrieved from http://www.blackwell-synergy.com.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1083-6101.1995.tb00167.x.

Journal of Documentation

Mon, Lorri M. (2012). Professional avatars: Librarians and educators in virtual worlds. Journal of Documentation, 68(3), 318 - 329.
Park, Jung-ran, Li, Guisu, Burger, Amy. (2010). Opening and closing rituals of the virtual reference service of the Internet Public Library. Journal of Documentation, 66(6), 807 - 823.
Westbrook, Lynn. (2007). Chat reference communication patterns and implications: Applying politeness theory. Journal of Documentation, 63(5), 638 - 658.
Chowdhury, Gobinda G. (2002). Digital libraries and reference services: Present and future. Journal of Documentation, 58(3), 258 - 283.

Journal of East Asian Libraries

Ping, Situ. (2010). Onsite reference: The only way to deliver user-centered services?. Journal of East Asian Libraries, 28 - 33.

Journal of Education for Library & Information Science

Agosto, Denise E., Rozaklis, Lily, Macdonald, Craig, Abels, Eileen G. (2010). Barriers and challenges to teaching reference in today's electronic information environment. Journal of Education for Library & Information Science, 51(3), 177 - 186.
Mon, Lorri, Abels, Eileen G., Agosto, Denise E., Japzon, Andrea, Most, Linda, Masnik, Mike, Hamann, Jeanne. (2008). Remote reference in U.S. public library practice and LIS education. Journal of Education for Library & Information Science, 49(3), 180 - 194.

Journal of Education for Library and Imformation Science

Lin, Xia, Abels, Eileen. (2010). Digital Library Education Lab. Journal of Education for Library and Imformation Science, 51(2), 120 - 124.

Journal of Education for Library and Information Science

Mon, Lorri, Randeree, Ebrahim. (2009). On the Boundaries of Reference Services: Questioning and Library 2.0. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 50(3), 164 - 175.
Nicholson, Scott. (2005). A framework for technology selection in a web-based distance eductation environment: Supporting community-building through richer interaction opportunities. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 46(3), 217 - 233.

Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences

Henson, Bruce, Tomajko, Kathy Gillespie. (2000). Electronic reference services: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences, 38(2), 113 - 121.

Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries

Resnick, Taryn. (2009). Core competencies for electronic resource access services. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 6(2), 101 - 122.
DeFebbo, Dana M., Mihlrad, Leigh, Strong, Marcy A. (2009). Microblogging for medical libraries and librarians. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 6(3), 211 - 223.

Journal of Hospital Librarianship

Jayaraman, Shobana. (2009). Selecting IM aggregator for a virtual reference service at UT Southwestern Medical Center Library. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 9(4), 433 - 438.

Journal of Information Literacy

Beck, Daniel. (2010). The role of information in the provision of virtual reference services at the equiry desk. Journal of Information Literacy, 4(2), pviii - 94.

Journal of Information Systems Education

Li, Lei, Pitts, Jennifer. (2009). Does it really matter? Using virtual office hours to enhance student-faculty interaction. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20(2), 175 - 185.

Journal of Language and Social Psychology

Walther, Joseph B., Loh, Tracy, Granka, Laura. (2005). Let me count the ways: The interchange of verbal and nonverbal cues in computer-mediated and face-to-face affinity. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24(1), 36 - 65.
Hancock, Jeffrey T. (2004). Verbal irony use in face-to-face and computer-mediated conversations. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 23(4), 447 - 463.

Journal of Library & Information Science

Haridasan, Sudharma. (2006). Collaborative digital reference service for the post industrial society. Journal of Library & Information Science, 31(2), 135 - 140.

Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning

Robinson, Kelly, Casey, Anne M., Citro, Kathleen. (2017). He asked me what!?-Using shared online accounts as training tools for distance learning librarians. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 11(1/2), 77 - 95.
Berndt-Morris, Elizabeth, Minnis, Samantha . (2014). The Chat Is Coming from Inside the House: An Analysis of Perceived Chat Behavior and Reality. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 8(3/4), 168 - 180.
Berndt-Morris, Elizabeth, Minnis, Samantha . (2014). The Chat Is Coming from Inside the House: An Analysis of Perceived Chat Behavior and Reality. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 8(3/4), 168 - 180.
Berndt-Morris, Elizabeth, Minnis, Samantha . (2014). The Chat Is Coming from Inside the House: An Analysis of Perceived Chat Behavior and Reality. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 8(3/4), 168 - 180.
Berndt-Morris, Elizabeth, Minnis, Samantha . (2014). The Chat Is Coming from Inside the House: An Analysis of Perceived Chat Behavior and Reality. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 8(3/4), 168 - 180.
Berndt-Morris, Elizabeth, Minnis, Samantha . (2014). The Chat Is Coming from Inside the House: An Analysis of Perceived Chat Behavior and Reality. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 8(3/4), 168 - 180.
Berndt-Morris, Elizabeth, Minnis, Samantha . (2014). The Chat Is Coming from Inside the House: An Analysis of Perceived Chat Behavior and Reality. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 8(3/4), 168 - 180.
Sekyere, Kwabena. (2011). Virtual reference service in academic libraries in West Africa. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(1/2), 3 - 9.
Sekyere, Kwabena. (2011). Virtual reference service in academic libraries in West Africa. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 5(1/2), 3 - 9.
Platt, Jessica, Benson, Pete. (2010). Improving the virtual reference experience: How closely do academic libraries adhere the RUSA guidelines?. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(1/2), 30 - 42.
Nicholas, Pauline. (2010). Desk to the desktop - - digital reference service leveraging educational assistance in distance learning: Implications for Jamaica. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(1/2), 18 - 29.
Meulemansa, Yvonne Nalani , Carr, Allison, Ly, Pearl. (2010). From a distance: Robust reference service via instant messaging. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(1/2), 3 - 17.
Johnson, Megan, Purpur, Geraldine, Abbott, Lisa T. (2009). Learning to provide 3D virtual reference: A library science assignment. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 3(3/4), 138 - 147.
MacDonald, Karen I., VanDuinkerken, Wyoma. (2005). Distance education and virtual reference: Implementing a marketing plan at Texas A&M University. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 2(4), 29 - 40.

Journal of Library & Information Technology

Aqil, Mohammad, Ahmad, Parvez, & Siddique, Mohammad Asad. (2011). Web 2.0 and libraries: Facts or myth. Journal of Library & Information Technology, 31(5), 395 - 400.

Journal of Library Administration

Farrell, Bridget, Leousis, Kas. (2017). Integrated reference ŕ la carte: Evaluating, selecting, and implementing the best features for your library. Journal of Library Administration, 57(4), 548 - 562.
Aguilar, Paulita, Keating, Kathleen, Schadl, Suzanne, Reenen, Johann Van. (2011). Reference as outreach: Meeting users where they are. Journal of Library Administration, 51(4), 343 - 358.
Alexander, Laurie, Blumenthal, Jane, Downing, Karen, MacAdam, Barbara, Rana, Gurpreet K., Reiman-Sendi, Karen, Scholtz, Nicole, Sutch, Laurie A. (2011). MLibrary: Concepts for redefining reference. Journal of Library Administration, 51(4), 326 - 342.
Clyde, Jerremie, Lee, Jennifer. (2011). Embedded reference to embedded librarianship: 6 years at the University of Calgary. Journal of Library Administration, 51(4), 389 - 402.
Mitchell, Megan S., Comer, Cynthia H., Starkey, Jennifer M., Francis, Eboni A. (2011). Paradigm shift in reference services at the Oberlin College library: A case study. Journal of Library Administration, 54(4), 359 - 374.
Kennedy, Scott. (2011). Farewell to the reference librarian. Journal of Library Administration, 51(4), 319 - 325.
Barnhart, Fred D., Pierce, Jeannette E. (2011). Becoming mobile: Reference in the ubiquitous library. Journal of Library Administration, 51(3), 279 - 290.
Adams, Kate E., Cassner, Mary. (2010). Library services for Great Plains IDEA Consortial Students. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 414 - 424.
Bower, Shirley L., Mee, Susan A. (2010). Virtual delivery of electronic resources and services to off-campus users: A multifaceted approach. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 468 - 483.
Hricko, Mary. (2010). Using microblogging tools for library services. Journal of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 684 - 692.
Shepley, Susan E. (2009). Building a Virtual Reference Campus: Librarians as Collaborators in Online Course Development and Learning. Journal of Library Administration, 49(1), 89 - 95.
Bodner, Stewart. (2009). Virtual Reference Reflections. Journal of Library Administration, 49(7), 675 - 685.
Veal, Robin, Bennett, Erika. (2009). The virtual library liaison: A case study at an online university. Journal of Library Administration, 49(1/2), 161 - 170.
Veal, Robin, Bennett, Erika. (2009). The virtual library liaison: A case study at an online university. Journal of Library Administration, 49(1/2), 161 - 170.
Arif, Muhammad, Mahmood, Khalid. (2008). Off-campus postgraduate students' perceptions about distance library support services: A case study of Allama Iqbal Open University libraries network. Journal of Library Administration, 48(3/4), 249 - 263.
Croft, Rosie, Eichenlaub, Naomi. (2006). E-mail reference in a distributed learning environment: best practices, user satisfaction, and the reference services continuum. Journal of Library Administration, 45(1), 117 - 147.
Devlin, Frances A., Burich, Nancy J., Stockham, Marica G. (2006). Getting beyond institutional cultures: When rivals collaborate. Journal of Library Administration, 42(1/2), 149 - 168.
Guillot, Ladonna, Stahr, Beth. (2004). A tale of two campuses: Providing virtual reference to distance nursing students. Journal of Library Administration, 41(1), 139 - 152.
Kern, M. Kathleen. (2004). Chat it up! Extending reference services to assist off-campus students. Journal of Library Administration, 41(1), 217 - 226.
Searing, Susan E. (2004). All in the family: Library services for LIS online education. Journal of Library Administration, 41(3/4), 391 - 405.
Ferguson, Jessame, Fowler, Joel, Hanley, Marilyn, Schafer, Jay. (2003). Building a digital library in support of distance learning. Journal of Library Administration, 37(3/4), 317 - 331.
Witten, Shelle. (2003). Being RAD: Reference at a distance in a multi-campus institution. Journal of Library Administration, 37(3/4), 549 - 567.
Smith, Rhonda M., Race, Stephanie F., Ault, Meredith. (2001). Virtual desk: Real reference. Journal of Library Administration, 32(1/2), 371 - 382.
Wheeler, Justine, Fournier, Leslie. (2001). Working in the Asynchronous Environment: Two Case Studies. Journal of Library Administration, 32(1/2), 425 - 438.

Journal of Library Services for Distance Education

Barnard, John. (1999). Web accessible library resources for emerging virtual universities. Journal of Library Services for Distance Education, 2. Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~library/jlsde/jlsde2.1.html.

Journal of Technical Writing & Communication

Krohn, Franklin B. (2004). A generational approach to using emoticons as nonverbal communication. Journal of Technical Writing & Communication, 34(4), 321 - 328.

Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology

Shah, Chirag, Kitzie, Vanessa. (2012). Social Q&A and virtual reference-comparing apples and oranges with the help of experts and users. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 63(10), 2020 - 2036.
Koshik, Irene, Okazawa, Hiromi. (2012). A conversation analytic study and potential problems in communication in library chat reference interactions. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 63(10), 2006 - 2019.
Bishop, Bradley Wade. (2011). Location-based questions and local knowledge. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 62(8), 1594 - 1603.
Epperson, T.W., A.Zem. (2008). reports, requests, and recipient design: The management of patron queries online reference chats. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 59(14), 2268 - 2283.
Epperson, T.W., A.Zem. (2008). reports, requests, and recipient design: The management of patron queries online reference chats. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 59(14), 2268 - 2283.
Epperson, T.W., A.Zem. (2008). reports, requests, and recipient design: The management of patron queries online reference chats. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 59(14), 2268 - 2283.
Epperson, T.W., A.Zem. (2008). reports, requests, and recipient design: The management of patron queries online reference chats. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 59(14), 2268 - 2283.
Epperson, T.W., A.Zem. (2008). reports, requests, and recipient design: The management of patron queries online reference chats. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 59(14), 2268 - 2283.
Epperson, T.W., A.Zem. (2008). reports, requests, and recipient design: The management of patron queries online reference chats. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 59(14), 2268 - 2283.
Epperson, T.W., A.Zem. (2008). reports, requests, and recipient design: The management of patron queries online reference chats. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 59(14), 2268 - 2283.
Radford, Marie L. (2006). Encountering virtual users: A qualitative investigation of interpersonal communication in chat reference. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 57(8), 1046 - 1059.
Pomerantz, Jeffery. (2005). A conceptual framework and open research questions for chat-based reference service. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 56(2), 1288 - 1302.

Journal of the American Society For Information Science and Technology

Koshik, Irene, Okazawa, Hiromi. (2012). A conversation analytic study of actual and potential problems in communication in library chat reference interactions. Journal of the American Society For Information Science and Technology, 63(10), 2006 - 2019.

Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology

Koshik, Irene , Okazawa, Hiro. (2012). A Conversation Analytic Study of Actual and Potential Problems in Communication in Library Chat Reference Interactions . Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(10), 2006 - 2019.
Koshik, Irene , Okazawa, Hiro. (2012). A Conversation Analytic Study of Actual and Potential Problems in Communication in Library Chat Reference Interactions . Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(10), 2006 - 2019.
Koshik, Irene , Okazawa, Hiro. (2012). A Conversation Analytic Study of Actual and Potential Problems in Communication in Library Chat Reference Interactions . Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(10), 2006 - 2019.
Koshik, Irene , Okazawa, Hiro. (2012). A Conversation Analytic Study of Actual and Potential Problems in Communication in Library Chat Reference Interactions . Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(10), 2006 - 2019.
Koshik, Irene , Okazawa, Hiro. (2012). A Conversation Analytic Study of Actual and Potential Problems in Communication in Library Chat Reference Interactions . Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(10), 2006 - 2019.
Numminen, Piritta, Vakkari, Pertti. (2009). Question types in public libraries' digital reference service in Finland: Comparing 1999 and 2006. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(6), 1249 - 1257.

Journal of the American Society For Information Science And Technology

Nummien, Piritta, Vakkari, Pertti. (2009). Question Types in Public Libraries' Digital Reference Service in Finland: Comparing 1999 and 2006. Journal of the American Society For Information Science And Technology, 60(6), 1249 - 1257.

Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology

Numminen, Piritta, Vakkari, Pertti. (2009). Question Types in Public Libraries' Digital Reference Service in Finland: Comparing 1999 and 2006. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(6), 1249 - 1257.
Shachaf, Pnina, Oltmann, Shannon M., Horowitz, Sarah M. (2008). Service equality in virtual reference. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(4), 535 - 550.
Park, Jung-ran. (2008). Linguistic Politeness and Face-Work in Computer-Mediated Communication, Part 1: A Theoretical Framework. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(13), 2051 - 2059.
Park, Jung-ran. (2008). Linguistic Politeness and Face-Work in Computer-Mediated Communication, Part 2: An Application of the Theoretical Framework. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(14), 2199 - 2209.
Westbrook, Lynn. (2007). Digital information support for domestic violence victims. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(3), 420 - 433.
Radford, Marie L. (2006). Encountering virtual users: A qualitative investigation of interpersonal communication in chat reference. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(8), 1046 - 1059.
Pomerantz, Jeffrey. (2005). A conceptual framework and open research questions for chat-based reference service. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 56(12), 1288 - 1302.
Fricke, Martin, Fallis, Don. (2004). Indicators of accuracy for answers to ready reference questions on the Internet. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 55(3), 238 - 245.
Lankes, R. David. (2004). The digital reference research agenda. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 55(4), 301 - 311.
Janes, Joseph. (2002). Digital reference: Reference librarians' experiences and attitudes. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(7), 549 - 566.
Janes, Joseph, Hill, Chrystie, Rolfe, Alex. (2001). Ask-an-expert services analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(13), 1106 - 1121.

Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology

Zemel, Al. (2017). Text as actions: Requests in online chats between reference librarians and library patrons. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 68(7), 1687 - 1697.
Zemel, Al. (2017). Text as actions: Requests in online chats between reference librarians and library patrons. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 68(7), 1687 - 1697.
Zemel, Al. (2017). Text as actions: Requests in online chats between reference librarians and library patrons. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 68(7), 1687 - 1697.

Journal of the Association of Information Science and Technology (JASIS&T)

Radford, M. L., Connaway, L. S., Mikitish, S., Alpert, M., Shah, C., Cooke, N. (2016). Shared values, new vision: Collaboration and communities of practice in virtual reference and SQA. . Journal of the Association of Information Science and Technology (JASIS&T).
Radford, M. L., Connaway, L. S., Mikitish, S., Alpert, M., Shah, C., Cooke, N. (2016). Shared values, new vision: Collaboration and communities of practice in virtual reference and SQA. . Journal of the Association of Information Science and Technology (JASIS&T).
Radford, M. L., Connaway, L. S., Mikitish, S., Alpert, M., Shah, C., Cooke, N. (2016). Shared values, new vision: Collaboration and communities of practice in virtual reference and SQA. . Journal of the Association of Information Science and Technology (JASIS&T).
Radford, M. L., Connaway, L. S., Mikitish, S., Alpert, M., Shah, C., Cooke, N. (2016). Shared values, new vision: Collaboration and communities of practice in virtual reference and SQA. . Journal of the Association of Information Science and Technology (JASIS&T).
Radford, M. L., Connaway, L. S., Mikitish, S., Alpert, M., Shah, C., Cooke, N. (2016). Shared values, new vision: Collaboration and communities of practice in virtual reference and SQA. . Journal of the Association of Information Science and Technology (JASIS&T).

Journal of the Medical Library Association

Tao, Donghua, McCarthy, Patrick G., Kreiger, Mary M., Webb, Annie B. (2009). The Mobile Reference Service: A case study of an onsite reference service program at the School of Public Health. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 97(1), 34 - 40.
Tu, Feili. (2007). Knowledge and skills required to provide health information-related virtual reference services: Evidence from a survey. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 95(4), 458 - 461.
De Groote, Sandra L., Hitchcock, Kristin, McGowan, Richard. (2007). Trends in reference usage statistics in an academic health sciences library. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 95(1), 23 - 30.
Bobal, Alison M., Schmidt, Cynthia M., Cox, Roxanne. (2005). One library's experience with live, virtual reference. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 93(1), 123 - 125.
Duncan, Vicky, Fichter, Darlene M. (2004). What words and where? Applying usability testing techniques to name a new live reference service. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 92(2), 218 - 225.
Moore, Mary, Ahmed, Terry, Glazer, Adam. (2004). Using and automated knowledge agent for reference and customer service. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 92(2), 271 - 273.

Journal of Virtual Worlds Research

Graham, Joseph M., Comaroski, E. (2015). Alexandria - A Virtual Repository of Knowledge. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 8(1), 1 - 15.
Graham, Joseph M., Comaroski, E. (2015). Alexandria - A Virtual Repository of Knowledge. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 8(1), 1 - 15.
Graham, Joseph M., Comaroski, E. (2015). Alexandria - A Virtual Repository of Knowledge. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 8(1), 1 - 15.
Graham, Joseph M., Comaroski, E. (2015). Alexandria - A Virtual Repository of Knowledge. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 8(1), 1 - 15.
Graham, Joseph M., Comaroski, E. (2015). Alexandria - A Virtual Repository of Knowledge. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 8(1), 1 - 15.

Journal of Web Librarianship

powers, Amanda Clay, Shedd, Julie, Hill, Clay. (2011). The role of virtual reference in library web site design: A qualitative source for usage data. Journal of Web Librarianship, 5(2), 96 - 113.
powers, Amanda Clay, Shedd, Julie, Hill, Clay. (2011). The role of virtual reference in library web site design: A qualitative source for usage data. Journal of Web Librarianship, 5(2), 96 - 113.

Katharine Sharp Review

Abbas, June. (1997). The library profession and the Internet: Implications and scenarios for change. Katharine Sharp Review, 5. Retrieved from http://mirrored.ukoln.ac.uk/lis-journals/review/review/5/abbas.html.
Moss, Molly M. (1997). Reference services for remote users. Katharine Sharp Review, 5. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20050404030855/alexia.lis.uiuc.edu/review/5/moss.html.

Kentucky Libraries

Maddox, Rebecca. (2003). Internet review: Virtual reference desks. Kentucky Libraries, 67(2), 21 - 23.

Kentucy Libraries

Marcum, Brad. (2005). Digital Reference: Stressmaker or Savior?. Kentucy Libraries, 69(2), 19 - 24.

Knowledge Quest

Mon, Lorri. (2006). Digital reference and ubiquitous computing in the classroom. Knowledge Quest, 34(3), 20 - 23.
Farmer, Lesley S. (2005). Virtual reference service for K-12 students. Knowledge Quest, 33(3), 22 - 24.
Farmer, Lesley S. (2003). Electronic reference service: A teen's eye view. Knowledge Quest, 32(1), 22 - 23.
Silverstein, Joanne. (2003). May we help you find something? AskNSDL!. Knowledge Quest, 31(3), 25 - 27.
Bennett, Blythe Allison. (1998). Gendered questions: asking for directions on the information highway. Knowledge Quest, 27(2), 24 - 25.
Bennett, Blythe Allison. (1998). Handling the quirky questions: A model for reference service. Knowledge Quest, 26(2), 59 - 60.

Learning Technology publication of IEEE Computer Society, Learning Technology Task Force (LTTF)

Jones, Alan, Webb, Eileen. (2000). An evaluation of the use of an intranet-based knowledgebase to support on-line dialogue. Learning Technology publication of IEEE Computer Society, Learning Technology Task Force (LTTF), 2. Retrieved from .

Lecture Notes in Computer Science

Procter, Rob, McKinlay, Andy, Goldenberg, Ana, Davenport, Elisabeth, Burnhill, Peter, Cannell, Sheila. (1997). Enhancing community and collaboration in the virtual library. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1324. Retrieved from .

Legal Reference Services Quarterly

Morais, Yasmin, Sampson, Sara. (2010). A content analysis of chat transcripts in the Georgetown Law Library. Legal Reference Services Quarterly, 29(3), 165 - 178.
Selby, Courtney. (2007). The evolution of the reference interview. Legal Reference Services Quarterly, 26(1), 35 - 46.
Duggan, James E. (2001). The new reference librarian: Using technology to deliver reference services. Legal Reference Services Quarterly, 19(3/4), 195 - 202.
Smith, Beth D. (2001). Enhancing reference services through technology. Legal Reference Services Quarterly, 19(1/2), 133 - 146.

Liber Quarterly: The Journal of European Research Libraries

Bakker, Trix. (2002). Virtual reference services: Connecting users with experts and supporting the development of skills. Liber Quarterly: The Journal of European Research Libraries, 12(2/3), 124 - 137.

Libraries & the Academy

Bishop, Bradley W. (2012). Can consortial reference partners answer your local users' library questions?. Libraries & the Academy, 12(4), 355 - 370.

Libraries and the Academy

Pomerantz, Jeffrey, Mon, Lorri M., McClure, Charles R. (2008). Evaluating remote reference service: A practical guide to problems and solutions. Libraries and the Academy, 8(1), 15 - 30.

Libraries of the Academy

Nolen, David S., Powers, Amanda Clay, Zhang, Li, Xu, Yue, Cannady, Rachel E., Li, Judy. (2012). Moving beyong assumptions: The use of virtual reference data in an academic library. Libraries of the Academy, 12(1), 23 - 40.

Library & Information Science Research

Radford, Marie L., & Connaway, Lynn S. (2013). Not dead yet! A longitudinal study of query type and ready reference accuracy in live chat IM reference.. Library & Information Science Research, 35(1), 2 - 13.
Luo, Lili, Weak, Emily. (2013). Text reference service: Teens\' perception and use. Library & Information Science Research, 35(1), 14 - 23.
Radford, Marie L., Connaway, Lynn Silipigni. (2012). Not dead yet! A longitudinal study of query type and ready reference accuracy in live chat and IM reference. Library & Information Science Research.
Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Dickey, Timothy J., Radford, Marie L. (2011). "If it is too inconvenient I'm not going after it:" Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library & Information Science Research, 33(3), 179 - 190.
Luo, Lili. (2009). Effective Training for Chat Reference Personal: An Exploratory Study. Library & Information Science Research, 31(4), 210 - 220.
Shachaf, Pnina, Horowitz, Sarah M. (2008). Virtual reference service evaluation: Adherence to RUSA behavioral guidelines and IFLA digital reference guidelines. Library & Information Science Research, 30(2), 122 - 137.
Luo, Lili. (2008). Toward sustaining professional development: Identifying essential competencies for chat reference. Library & Information Science Research, 30(4), 298 - 311.
Buckland, Michael K. (2008). Reference library service in the digital environment. Library & Information Science Research, 30(2), 81 - 85.
Kazmer, Michelle M., Burnett, Gary, Dickey, Michael H. (2007). Identity in customer service chat interaction: Implications for virtual reference. Library & Information Science Research, 29(1), 5 - 29.
Kwon, Nahyun. (2007). Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type. Library & Information Science Research, 29(1), 70 - 91.
Pomerantz, Jeffrey, Luo, Lili. (2006). Motivations and uses: evaluating virtual reference service from the users' perspective. Library & Information Science Research, 28(3), 350 - 373.
Pomerantz, Jeffrey, Luo, Lili, McClure, Charles R. (2006). Peer review of chat reference transcripts: Approaches and strategies. Library & Information Science Research, 28(1), 24 - 48.
Radford, Marie L., Kern, M. Kathleen. (2006). A multiple-case study investigation of the discontinuation of nine chat reference services. Library & Information Science Research, 28(4), 521 - 547.
Shachaf, Pnina, Horowitz, Sarah. (2006). Are virtual reference services color blind?. Library & Information Science Research, 28(4), 501 - 520.
White, Marilyn Domas. (2001). Digital reference services: Framework for analysis and evaluation. Library & Information Science Research, 23(3), 211 - 231.
McInerney, Claire R. (1999). Working in the virtual office: Providing information and knowledge to remote workers. Library & Information Science Research, 21(1), 69 - 89.
Roselle, Ann, Neufeld, Steven. (1998). The utility of electronic mail follow-ups for library research. Library & Information Science Research, 20(2), 153 - 161.
Ryan, Sara. (1996). Reference service for the internet community: A case study of the internet public library reference division. Library & Information Science Research, 18(3), 241 - 259.

Library & Information Update

Melrose, Elizabeth. (2009). The virtues of face-to-face and virtual reference. Library & Information Update, 29.
(2008). CILIP briefing. Library & Information Update, 7(3), 9.
(2008). Push to promote EDI messaging. Library & Information Update, 7(3), 10.
Chan, Ben. (2005). 24-hour reference service. Library & Information Update, 4(6), 24 - 26.

Library Administration & Management

Sweeney, Richard T. (2005). Reinventing Library Buildings and Services for the Millennial Generation. Library Administration & Management, 19(4), 165 - 175.
Cargill, Jennifer S. (1992). The electronic reference desk: Reference service in an electronic world. Library Administration & Management, 6, 82 - 85.

Library and Information Science Research

Shachaf, P., Shaw, D. (2008). Bibliometric analysis to identify core reference sources of virtual reference transactions. Library and Information Science Research, 30(4), 291 - 297.
Shachaf, Pnina, Shaw, D. (2008). Bibliometric analysis to identify core reference sources of virtual reference transactions. Library and Information Science Research, 30(4), 291 - 297.

Library Hi Tech

Hendricks, Arthur &, Buchanan, Sherry. (2013). From exhaustion to exhilaration: Assessing librarian job satisfaction with virtual reference. Library Hi Tech, 31(1), 42 - 63.
Resnick, Taryn, Clark, Dennis T. (2009). Evolution of electronic resources support: Is virtual reference the answer?. Library Hi Tech, 27(3), 357 - 371.
Tagge, Natalie. (2009). Jing and yang: Balancing asynchronous and synchronous training. Library Hi Tech, 26(10), 6 - 7.
Clements, Charlotte. (2009). Implementing instant messaging in four university libraries. Library Hi Tech, 27(3), 393 - 402.
Godfrey, Krista. (2008). A new world for virtual reference. Library Hi Tech, 26(4), 525 - 539.
Scales, Jane, Wolf, Danel, Johnson, Corey, Cummings, Lara. (2007). Courseware and library services: Bridging the gap for distance students. Library Hi Tech, 25(1), 147 - 156.
Hegenbart, B. (1998). The economics of the Internet Public Library. Library Hi Tech, 16(2), 69 - 83.
Janes, Joseph. (1998). The Internet Public Library: An intellectual history. Library Hi Tech, 16(2), 55 - 68.
Barnes, Susan J. (1994). The electronic library and public services. Library Hi Tech, 12(3), 44 - 62.
Billings, Harold, Carver, Ira E., Tongate, John, Ploof, Steven. (1994). Remote reference assistance for electronic information resources over networked workstations. Library Hi Tech, 12(1), 77 - 86.

Library Hi Tech News

Ramos, Marian S., Abrigo, Christine M. (2012). Reference 2.0 in action: An evaluation of the digital reference services in selected Philippine academic libraries. Library Hi Tech News, 29(1), 8 - 20.
Steiner, Heidi M. (2010). Livening virtual reference with screencasting and screen sharing. Library Hi Tech News, 27(4/5), 9 - 11.
Stahr, Beth. (2009). SMS library reference service options. Library Hi Tech News, 26(3/4), 13 - 15.
Theiss-White, Danielle, Dale, Jenny, Fritch, Melia Erin, Bonella, Laura, Coleman, Jason. (2009). IM’ing overload: Libraryh3lp to the rescue. Library Hi Tech News, 26(1/2), 12 - 17.
Pope, Kitty, Peters, Tom, Bell, Lori. (2009). InfoQuest: Using text messaging to answer reference questions. Library Hi Tech News, 26(8), 12 - 13.
(2006). Seeking synchronicity. Library Hi Tech News, 23(7), 38 - 39.
Peters, Tom, Bell, Lori, Ruda, Sharon, Sussman, Diane Brawley. (2004). InfoEyes: A virtual reference service for the visually impaired. Library Hi Tech News, 21(6), 5 - 11.
Bradbury, David, Payne, Georgina. (2001). The OPAL project: Developing an online digital reference service for distance learners. Library Hi Tech News, 18(9), 28 - 29.
Sloan, Bernie. (2001). Reference service in the digital library: A report on the ready for reference project. Library Hi Tech News, 18(10).

Library Hi-Tech News

Vincze, Jose. (2017). Virtual reference librarians (chatbots). Library Hi-Tech News, 34(4), 5 - 8.

Library Journal

Francoeur, Stephen. (2013). Reference back talk: Testing, testing: Virtual reference UX. Library Journal, 138(10), 142.
Kelley, Michael, Schwartz, Meredith, Lee, Michelle, Warburton, Bob. (2012). New Jersey virtual reference now a glimmer. Library Journal, 137(4), 14 - 16.
(2012). Superhero competitor. Library Journal, 137(5), 59.
Schmidt, Aaron. (2011). Revamping reference. Library Journal, 136(8), 18.
Thomas, Lisa Carlucci. (2010). Gone mobile?. Library Journal, 135(17), 30 - 34.
Zino, Eric. (2009). Let's Fix Virtual Reference. Library Journal, 134(2), 94.
Coombs, Karen. (2009). Local mobile efforts abound. Library Journal, 134(12), 50.
Evans, Beth. (2006). Your space or MySpace?. Library Journal, 131, 8 - 12.
Ramsay, Karen M., Kinnie, Jim. (2006). The embedded librarian. Library Journal, 131(6), 34 - 35.
Tenopir, Carol. (2006). What chat transcripts reveal. Library Journal, 131(4), 34 - 34.
Bailey-Hainer, Brenda. (2005). Virtual reference: Alive and well. Library Journal. Retrieved from http://www.libraryjournal.com/index.asp?layout=articlePrint&articleID=CA491140.
Oder, Norman. (2005). UK offers free 24/7 reference. Library Journal, 130(12), 22.
Rogers, Michael. (2005). Colorado State Library talks virtual reference. Library Journal, 130(15), 25 - 25.
Schmidt, Aaron, Stephens, Michael. (2005). IM me. Library Journal, 130(6), 34 - 35.
Jacobi, Laura. (2004). Chatting at Gallaudet. Library Journal, 129, 3 - 3.
Peters, Tom. (2004). Auditory options. Library Journal, 129(netConnect Spring), 8 - 9.
Tenopir, Carol. (2004). Rethinking virtual reference. Library Journal, 129(18), 34.
Tenopir, Carol. (2004). Chat's positive side. Library Journal, 129(20), 42.
Kenney, Brian. (2003). The virtual gets real. Library Journal, 128(15), 32 - 35.
Tennant, Roy. (2003). Revisiting digital reference. Library Journal, 128(1), 38,40.
Thompson, Joseph. (2003). After school and online. Library Journal, 128(Netconnect Winter), 35 - 37.
Kawakami, Alice K. (2002). Delivering digital reference. Library Journal, 127, 28 - 29.
Kenney, Brian. (2002). Live, digital reference: a close look at libraries' exciting new service. (An LJ Round Table). Library Journal, 121(16), 46.
Oder, Norman. (2001). Digital reference needs metrics. Library Journal, 126(20), 16 - 17.
Oder, Norman. (2001). The shape of e-reference. Library Journal, 126(2), 46 - 50.
Rogers, Michael, Kenney, Brian. (2001). Academic libraries test web-based reference. Library Journal, 126(12), 25.
Tenopir, Carol. (2001). Virtual reference services in a real world. Library Journal, 126(12), 38 - 40.
Weissman, Sara. (2001). Considering a launch?. Library Journal, 126(2), 49.
Weissman, Sara. (2001). Know your audience. Library Journal, 126(7), 42.
Kenney, Brian. (2001). Academic libraries test Web-based reference. Library Journal, 126(12).
Weissman, Sara. (2000). Shoptalk: Answers to real world problems. Library Journal, 125(1), 28.
Weissman, Sara. (2000). Why do electronic reference?. Library Journal, 2, 28.
Lancaster, F. W. (1999). Second thoughts on the paperless society. Library Journal, 124(15), 48 - 50.
Lipow, Anne Grodzins. (1999). 'In your face' reference service. Library Journal, 124(13), 50 - 52.
Tennant, Roy. (1999). Of human and humane assistance. Library Journal, 124(11), 30, 34.
Sloan, Bernard G. (1986). High tech/low profile: Automation & the 'invisible' patron. Library Journal, 111(18), 4 - 8.
Hernon, Peter, McClure, Charles. (1986). Unobtrusive Reference Testing: The 55 Percent Rule. Library Journal, 111, 37 - 41.
Sloan, Bernard G. (1986). High tech/low profile: Automation & the invisible patron. Library Journal, 111, LC4.

Library Management

Bakar, Ahmad Bakeri Abu. (2012). Myths and realities of digital reference services: Perspectives of libraries from developing countries. Library Management, 33(3), 136 - 141.
Xiao, Judy. (2010). Integrating information literacy into Blackboard: Librarian-faculty collaboration for successful student learning. Library Management, 31(8/9), 654 - 668.
Farha, Aida. (2001). End-user training in a virtual medical library setting – A case study of an academic medical library in Lebanon. Library Management, 22(8/9), 351 - 356.

Library Media Connection

Dalston, Teresa, & Pullin, Michael. (2008). Virutal reference on a budget: Case Studies. Library Media Connection, 27(2), 30 - 33.

Library Mosaics

McGranahan, Jamen. (2005). Virtual reference. Library Mosaics, 16(4), 16.
Wadham, Rachel Lynn. (2001). Virtual reference. Library Mosaics, 12(6), 20.

Library of Congress Information Bulletin

Gottesman, Laura. (2003). Why digital reference matters: Leading librarian cybercast. Library of Congress Information Bulletin, 62(4), 95.
Gottesman, L. (2002). Digital reference: Bringing the reference desk to cyberspace. Library of Congress Information Bulletin, 61(3/4), 56 - 59.
Lamolinara, Guy, Grnke, Ralf. (1998). Reference service in a digital age: Library Institute focuses on electronic tools. Library of Congress Information Bulletin, 57(8), 196 - 198.

Library Philosophy & Practice

Ghasri, Atefeh Noorizadeh, Dehghani, Mozhdeh. (2009). Chat reference: Training and competencies for librarians. Library Philosophy & Practice, 11(1), 1 - 7. Retrieved from http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/ghasri-degani.htm.
Abu Baker, Ahmad Bakeri. (2009). Virtual reference service in the Muslim world: Opportunities and challenges. Library Philosophy & Practice, 2009, 1 - 4.
Zanin-Yost, Alessia. (2004). Digital reference: What the past has taught us and what the future will hold. Library Philosophy & Practice, 7(1), 1 - 16.

Library Philosophy and Practice

Ghasri, Atefeh Noorizadeh, Dehghani, Mozhdeh. (2009). Chat Reference: Training and Competencies for Librarians. Library Philosophy and Practice, 1 - 7.

Library Quarterly

Chow, Anthony S., Baity, C. Chase, Zamarripa, Marilyn, Chappell, Pam, Rachlin, David, Vinson, Curtis. (2012). The information needs of virtual users: A study of Second Life libraries. Library Quarterly, 82(4), 477 - 510.
Mon, Lorri, Bishop, Bradley W., McClure, Charles R, McGivray, Jessica, Most, Linda, Milas, Theodore Patrick, Snead, John T. (2009). The geography of virtual questioning?. Library Quarterly, 79(4), 393 - 420.
White, Marilyn Domas. (2000). Questioning behavior on a consumer health electronic list. Library Quarterly, 70(3), 302 - 334.

Library Review

Barry, Eithne, Bedoya, Jaclyn Kelli, Groom, Carolyn, Patterson, Laurence. (2010). Virtual reference in UK academic libraries: The virtual enquiry project 2008-2009. Library Review, 59(1), 40 - 55.
Lukasiewicz, Adrianna. (2007). Exploring the role of digital academic libraries: Changing student needs demand innovative service approach. Library Review, 56(9), 821 - 827.
Chowdhury, Gobinda, Margariti, Simone. (2004). Digital reference services: A snapshot of the current practices in Scottish libraries. Library Review, 53(1), 50 - 60.
Cloughley, Karen. (2004). Digital reference services: How do the library-based services compare with the expert services?. Library Review, 53(1), 17 - 23.
Davis, Keith, Scholfield, Sally. (2004). "Beyond the virtual shore”: An Australian digital reference initiative with a global dimension. Library Review, 53(1), 61 - 65.
Gessesse, Kebede. (1997). Re-examining the role of the public services librarian in the new Information Age. Library Review, 46(2), 90 - 98.

Library Technology

Ormes, Sarah. (1998). You only had to ask. Library Technology, 3(2), 39 - 40.
Gleadhill, D. (1997). Electronic enquiry desk: Does the nerd have the answer?. Library Technology, 2(2), 35 - 36.

Library Technology Reports

Maxwell, Nancy Kalikow. (2002). Establishing and maintaining live online reference service. Library Technology Reports, 38(4), 1 - 87.

Library Trends

Webster, Peter. (2006). Interconnected and innovative libraries: Factors tying libraries more closely together. Library Trends, 54(3), 382 - 393.
White, Marilyn Domas, Marsh, Emily E. (2006). Content analysis: A flexible methodology. Library Trends, 51(1), 22 - 45.
Walter, Virginia A., Mediavilla, Cindy. (2005). Teens are from Neptune, librarians are from Pluto: An analysis of online reference transactions. Library Trends, 54(2), 209 - 227.
Silverstein, Joanne. (2005). Just curious: Children's use of digital reference for unimposed queries and its importance in informal education. Library Trends, 54(2), 228 - 244.
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